The unique properties of plasma that is present in the plasma cutter is the one responsible for making such object pass through ferrous materials such as metals and steels.
Let us first define plasma before we continue discussing about plasma cutters and how it works. Speaking of plasma, it is known to be as the fourth state of matter apart from solid, liquid and gas and is also known as a hot ionized gas which consists of approximately the same equal numbers of positively charged ions and the negatively charged electrons. Perhaps, many of us learned from our younger years that matter only consist of three states which are the solid, liquid and gas however, the matter of the fact is that there are actually four of them and the fourth one is plasma. As what is being mentioned in the previous statement, a plasma define as an ionized gas in which sufficient energy is being provided to free electrons coming from atoms or molecules and also, it is the one that enables the coexistence of ions and electrons. By boosting a gas to an extremely high temperature will definitely result from the creation of plasma. When the gas was boosted on to an extremely high temperature, the energy begins to break the gas molecules apart and the atoms will also begin to split as well. With this, the fast moving electrons will also collide with the other electrons and ions which will lead to the release of an enormous amount of energy. The amazing cutting power of plasma is caused by the enormous amount of energy being released by the collision of electrons and ions.
The plasma cutter actually works by sending a pressurized gas through the small channel in the cutting nozzle. You can find in the middle of the channel a negatively charged electrode. When you put power to a negatively charged electrode and touch the tip of the nozzle with a positively charged metal, it will produce a connection and coming from that connection is the creation of a circuit and a powerful spark. Plasma will be produced once the has that has been passing through the channel will be heated by the spark until it reach its fourth state form, so to speak. Did you know that the temperature of plasma can actually reach an amazing thirty thousand degree Fahrenheit and that once it reached that level, it became capable of cutting almost any material.
There is also another of making plasma cutter works and that is by creating a high velocity of plasma flow between the electrode that is negatively charged and the electrode that is positively charged.Source: http://homebusinessmag.com/management/how-to-guides-management/factory-running-optimum-level/