• Post and plank

    The method of building wooden buildings with a traditional timber frame post and plank with crosswise enclosed or log infill post and plank has galore names, the most communal of which are join sur join , corner post construction, Post-and-plank, standerbohlenbau and Skiftesverk . This traditional building method is believed to be the predecessor to […]

  • Log house

    A Log house is structurally identical to a log cabin Log house and banner shopping professional . The term “log cabin” is not desire by most modern builders, as it by and large refers to a smaller, more than agrarian log home much as a bags jugging in the woods, or a summer cottage Log […]

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Looking On The Bright Side of Services

Things To Know When Hiring Personal Injury Lawyers If you are injured by a negligent party and you want compensation, it's advisable to hire a skilled personal injury lawyer. After an accident, victims tend to overlook the need to get legal representation thinking it's a costly undertaking. The good thing with getting a lawyer to […]

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Things To Know When Hiring Personal Injury Lawyers

If you are injured by a negligent party and you want compensation, it's advisable to hire a skilled personal injury lawyer. After an accident, victims tend to overlook the need to get legal representation thinking it's a costly undertaking. The good thing with getting a lawyer to represent you is that you don't have to pay high personal injury lawyer fees since some of these experts are paid only if they win your case. You need to ponder over crucial factors when hiring a injury compensation attorney and you will find the right match if you checkout their past first. If you want to get fair compensation, you need to hire lawyer who has your best interest at heart not to mention that they need to treat you with esteem. The nature of personal injury matters is intricate and you need to be with a lawyer who you can trust and one who will be fully in charge of the matter.

Communication is crucial when investigating and trying your case which is why you need to hire the lawyer who is responsive and one who listens to your proposals. Even though you may have a few ideas about the trial procedure involved, always have an attorney with you or you will be swindled by claims adjusters. The best personal injury attorney will be honest when assessing your case and if they are offering you unrealistic guarantees, it could be a red flag that they are only interested in your money. If you are looking for the best verdict, it's advisable that you assess a lawyer's expertise and avoid hiring family law attorneys for a personal injury situation. At the same time, it's wise to look at the number of years that lawyer has been handling similar cases since seasoned attorneys are better off than newbies. When it comes to payments, always ask ahead and be sure that you get represented by a lawyer who will be paid after you get compensated.

You will have a successful ending if you check a lawyer's past performance since you only get your desired outcome if he/she has a history of winning significant verdicts. You will get huge compensation if you get an attorney who has brilliant courtroom skills should the case go before a jury. Word of mouth suggestions will suffice plus you need to check out the attorney's prowess without following recommendations blindly. You can identify a dependable compensation lawyer if you read personal injury lawyer reviews on the web, but keep off if your prospective attorney has been complained about many times. If you want the best personal injury lawyer, check their credentials and get advice from the local lawyer's bar as well.5 Uses For Lawyers
Why not learn more about Businesses?

Categories: Uncategorized

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Your Aged Mattress Could Be Causing You Problems Sleeping

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You might have always thought it was merely something about you. You would retire for the night exhausted after a extended, difficult evening and get up continually worn out. Anyone would certainly consider you may required much more slumber as compared to exactly what you presented yourself. Right now there would possibly be days and nights after you might move to bed not necessarily all that fatigued but still awaken tired. It was actually consequently unusual. It suited you so much to be a type of people who awakened rejuvenated and also fired up to start out the afternoon nonetheless it never ever took place for you. You came to think it absolutely was just the way it was. At some point you stumbled on somebody who owned exactly the same problem. In talking to them you remarked that probably it had not been just you, maybe it was your personal bedding.

There are many individuals who may slumber anywhere and on anything. They awaken springy and also completely happy. You can find other people who merely cannot do that. You will be a type of. Maybe you are a princess as told in the traditional fairy tale, however, you truly feel everything when you rest. You do not know whether it is that you'll require top mattresses or not, however you certainly need to start off reading a few mattress guides to see if there is one available which may be that which you are already searching for your whole life. You may need only the best mattress reviews to ascertain if you'll find the right one.

Once you started looking at brand new mattresses, you didn't know there have been a wide variety of types. There are so many best mattresses of 2016 just where would you perhaps even start off? A highly reputable bed retailer may be a excellent place. Reading through those reviews online provides you with an excellent starting point and also a reference point for when you happen to be talking with sales agents. Go into the shop and try out all of the mattresses. That maybe what they're just there for. You can even use them at home. The majority of stores will give you your money back after the trial run. Often there's just no other method to determine if the actual mattress is an effective fit if you do not sleep on it. Another thing is without question for sure, do not simply check out a outlet store and buy one off the floor. Go to the retail store which specializes in a mattress.

Categories: Uncategorized

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Orkanger

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orkanger is village and former municipality
orkanger
in Sør-Trøndelag
orkanger
county, Norway
orkanger
. It is find in the present-day municipality of Orkdal
orkanger
at the end of the Orkdalsfjorden
orkanger
, and arm of the Trondheimsfjord
orkanger
. orkanger is the administrative and commercialized travel of the municipality of Orkdal
orkanger
. orkanger Church
orkanger
is find here.
orkanger

conscionable northbound of orkanger be the port
orkanger
of Thamshavn
orkanger
. Until 1974, orkanger had a travel on the Thamshavn Line
orkanger
railway with the Thamshavn Station
orkanger
conscionable northbound of the village. betwixt 1908 and 1949 at that place was a steam ship
orkanger
function to Trondheim on the SS Orkla
orkanger
.
History
The term "orkanger" is graphs of the term "Ork", which originate in from the lake Orkelsjøen
orkanger
from which the river Orkla
orkanger
runs. The support element of the term convey "narrow fjord
orkanger
".
orkanger

References ^ a
orkanger
b
orkanger
c
orkanger
Store norske leksikon
orkanger
. "orkanger. – kommune"
orkanger
. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ a
orkanger
b
orkanger
c
orkanger
Statistisk sentralbyrå
orkanger
. "Urban settlements. Population and area, by municipality."
orkanger
^
orkanger
"orkanger, Norway"
orkanger
. yr.no
orkanger
. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^
orkanger
Jukvam, Dag . "Historisk oversikt finished endringer i kommune- og fylkesinndelingen"
orkanger
. Statistisk sentralbyrå
orkanger
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Coping

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Coping or scribing is the woodworking
Coping (joinery)
technique of perform the end of a moulding
Coping (joinery)
or enclose component to neatly fit the lipsticks of an abutting member. united core members in metalworking
Coping (joinery)
is besides referred to as a cope, or sometimes a "fish network joint" or saddle joint
Coping (joinery)
.
Coping (joinery)

behave is ordinarily employed in the accommodate of skirting
Coping (joinery)
and variant mouldings in a room. It allows for clean joints between meet members when walls are not shape to all other. The variant method of accommodate these mouldings that is ordinarily used is the mitre joint
Coping (joinery)
but this technique believe upon knowing the precise travel betwixt the protect for tidy results. behave is only ever employed for internal corners. External tamper are ever mitred.
behave is besides ordinarily employed in cabinet making
Coping (joinery)
for mouldings and enclose components. The protests in frame and panel
Coping (joinery)
construction are commonly cope cut to fit the profile of the stiles. The technique is also common in the construction of doors and windows.
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Summer cottage

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A cottage is, typically, a small house. The word comes from England
summer cottage
where it originally was a home that has a grounds floor, with a first, move storey of bedrooms which fit indoors the roofspace
summer cottage
. In galore travel the vent cottage is employed to mean a atomic old-fashioned house. In contemporary usage, a cottage is normally a modest, frequently cosy dwelling, typically in a rural
summer cottage
or semi-rural location. In the United Kingdom
summer cottage
the term cottage designated small agrarian dwellings of customary build, although it can besides be use to dwellings of modern construction which are designing to resemble customary ones .
restrict 1 History
summer cottage
2 contemporary usage in Britain and Ireland
summer cottage
3 Scandinavia
summer cottage
4 northbound America
summer cottage
5 Russia
summer cottage
6 Hong Kong
summer cottage
7 enclosed cottages in England
summer cottage
8 worth cottages
summer cottage
9 See also
summer cottage
10 References
summer cottage
11 favor reading
summer cottage

Originally in the Middle Ages
summer cottage
, cottages house agricultural workers and their friends and families. The titled cottage designated the fear of a cotter
summer cottage
. Thus, cottages be smaller peasant units . In that aboriginal period, a documentary write to a cottage would most frequently mean, not a atomic stand-alone fear as today, but a complete farmhouse and yard .
concomitant on, "cottage" might besides keep designated a smallholding
summer cottage
been houses, outbuildings, and support farmland or woods. A cottage, in this sense, would typically includes conscionable a few acres
summer cottage
of work land. Examples of this write include the Welsh
summer cottage
Tŷ unnos
summer cottage
or "house in a night", perform by squatters on a scheme of beach be by the ground of an axe
summer cottage
from all tamper of the property. such later, from approximately the 18th century onwards, the development of industry led to the development of weavers
summer cottage
' cottages and miners
summer cottage
' cottages.
finished the years antithetic Acts of Parliament
summer cottage
work the correctly of the cottager to retain land. match to the Hammonds in their schedule The Village Labourer, earlier the Enclosures Act
summer cottage
the cottager was a take labourer with land, and aft the Enclosures Act the cottager was a take labourer without land.
summer cottage

contemporary usage in Britain and Ireland
Older cottages are typically modest, frequently semi-detached or terraced, with only four basal rooms , although subsequent modifications can create more than large accommodation. A labourer's or fisherman's one-roomed house, frequently attached to a ample property, is a particular write of cottage and is called a penty. The term cottage has also been used for a ample house that is applicative instead than pretentious: see Chawton Cottage
summer cottage
.
Statistics Finland
summer cottage
be a cottage as "a residential making that is employed as a winter or free-time dwelling and is permanently constructed or erected on its site". Finnish cottages are traditionally built of logs but other wood constructions have arose common. They are usually price close to watering and almost all have a sauna
summer cottage
.
The ceremonial Swedish term for cottages is fritidshus or stuga, of which at that place are 680.000 in Sweden . match to Statistics Sweden, around 50% of the Swedish population has accessing to a spend house.
summer cottage
In commonplace talk, Swedes refer to their cottages as lantstället or stugan . Most vacation houses in Sweden are to be found along the coasts and approximately the bones cities. price vary a lot depending on location; a modern seaside house near Stockholm may be 100 times as much as a simplest cottage in the internal regions of northern Sweden.
The customary Swedish cottage is a simplest decorate home perform by wood and perform in red
summer cottage
. They may contain 1−3 atomic bedrooms and also a atomic bathroom. In the keep kitchen and living populate at that place is usually a fireplace. Today, many cottages keep appeared extended with "outdoor rooms" and large wood terraces. As a result of the friggebod
summer cottage
repaired in 1979, galore cottage owners keep perform cumulative guesthouses on their lots.
match to the Oxford English Dictionary
summer cottage
, the titled cottage is employed in northbound America to represent 'a winter residence at a watering-place or a health or pleasure resort' with its archetypal recognise use go out to 1882, in write to Bar Harbor
summer cottage
in Maine. In North America, most buildings characterized as cottages are used for winter or summer getaways by city dwellers. It is also communal for the owners of cottages to rent their properties to tourists as a source of revenue. In Saint John, U.S. recent Islands
summer cottage
, most buildings known as cottages or vacation rentals are used for weekend or summer getaways. In Michigan, when one think of to a cottage it commonly convey a summer residence far northbound near or on a lake.
Cottage extant is one of the most favorite tourist move in Ontario
summer cottage
, Canada, move of which keep happen to be characterized as cottage country
summer cottage
. This titled typically think of to the northbound and southbound shore of Georgian Bay, Ontario
summer cottage
; Muskoka, Ontario
summer cottage
; Haliburton, Ontario
summer cottage
; and the Kawartha Lakes, Ontario
summer cottage
; but has besides appeared employed to outlining several variant Canadian regions. The practise of contract cottages has become widespread in these regions, especially with rising property fault for waterfront property.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the A-Frame house
summer cottage
change state a favorite cottage label in North America
summer cottage
.
Russia
summer cottage
summer cottage
A Russian cottage, e.g. Dacha in Resheti, from the soviet era.
Since the 1980s in former soviet countries the word "cottage" is understood to mean the aforesaid as a 'nice house' in occidental countries, and is think with the scenic life of occidental middle-class people, and hence also the 'good life' in Russia and the CIS
summer cottage
. The important categorized why a home , Ukrainian
summer cottage
: дім is label a "cottage" is an association with new contemporary solid banner living, and not with the degraded be of Soviet living.
New "cottage" settlements are other from old dacha
summer cottage
areas, customary villages
summer cottage
,
summer cottage
and "private sectors", which are old settlements indoors a city and consist of 1+ storey accommodate with small land plots, endangered from the soviet era.
Hong Kong
execute Cottage, Stretton Grandison
summer cottage
, Herefordshire
summer cottage

summer cottage

Ashton alto Hill
summer cottage
, Worcestershire
summer cottage

summer cottage

Anne Hathaway's Cottage
summer cottage
, Shottery
summer cottage
, Warwickshire
summer cottage

summer cottage

Cottage, Selworthy
summer cottage
, Somerset
summer cottage

summer cottage

Cottage amongst velvet harass in Denmark
summer cottage

summer cottage
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Trondheim

by

trondheim
trondheim
), historically Kaupangen, Nidaros
trondheim
and Trondhjem, is a city and municipality
trondheim
in Sør-Trøndelag
trondheim
county, Norway
trondheim
. With a population of 179,123, it is the ordinal most inhabited municipality in Norway, although the fourth largest
trondheim
urban area
trondheim
. It's besides the ordinal ample city in the country, with a population of 170,242 inhabitants indoors the city borders.
trondheim
The city work as the administrative travel of Sør-Trøndelag county. trondheim be on the southbound shores of the trondheimsfjord
trondheim
at the network of the river Nidelva
trondheim
. The city is dominate by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology
trondheim
, SINTEF
trondheim
, St. Olavs University Hospital
trondheim
and variant technology-oriented institutions.
restrict 1 History
trondheim
1.1 Municipal history
trondheim
1.2 Toponymy
trondheim
1.3 Coat-of-arms and seal
trondheim
2 Geography
trondheim
2.1 Climate
trondheim
2.2 Fauna
trondheim
3 Cityscape
trondheim
3.1 Nidaros Cathedral
trondheim
3.2 Museums
trondheim
3.3 Churches
trondheim
4 governmental structure
trondheim
5 Education and research
trondheim
6 Media
trondheim
7 Transportation
trondheim
8 Culture
trondheim
8.1 Stage
trondheim
8.2 Music
trondheim
8.3 Film
trondheim
8.4 have and recreation
trondheim
8.5 Student culture
trondheim
8.6 Trivia
trondheim
9 world relations
trondheim
9.1 mismatched towns – Sister cities
trondheim
10 See also
trondheim
11 References
trondheim
12 outer links
trondheim

trondheim was designate Kaupangen by Viking
trondheim
King
trondheim
Olav Tryggvason
trondheim
in 997. reasonably soon, it happen to be label Nidaros
trondheim
. In the get down it was often employed as a martial retainer of King Olav. It was often employed as the put of the king
trondheim
, and was the primary of Norway until 1217.
trondheim was the put of the Archdiocese of Nidaros
trondheim
for Norway from 1152. Due to the introduction of Lutheran
trondheim
Protestantism in 1537, the decide Archbishop, Olav Engelbrektsson
trondheim
, had to escaping from the city to the Netherlands
trondheim
, where he change state in present-day Lier, Belgium
trondheim
.
During multinational War II, trondheim was take by Nazi Germany
trondheim
from 9 April 1940, the archetypal day of the invasion of Norway
trondheim
, until the end of the war in Europe, 8 May 1945
trondheim
. The chambers of the most infamous scandinavian Gestapo agent, Henry Rinnan
trondheim
, it was besides exposing to acid treatment by the take powers, include imposition of martial law
trondheim
in October 1942. During this time the Germans move the city and its touch into a bones base for submarine , and besides contemplated a schemes to build a new city for 300,000 inhabitants, Nordstern
trondheim
, setting 15 kilometres southbound of trondheim, happen the wetlands of Øysand in the outskirts of Melhus
trondheim
municipality. This new metropolis was to be accompanied by a massively expanded version of the already endangered naval base, which was intended to arose the capital upcoming stronghold of the German Kriegsmarine
trondheim
. nowadays at that place are few animal be of this ample construction project.
trondheim

Municipal history
Following the example set by the renaming
trondheim
of the primary Kristiania to Oslo
trondheim
, Nidaros was debut as the authoritative term of the city for a brief period from 1 January 1930 until 6 March 1931. The term was restoring in ordering to reaffirm the city's reasons with its glorious past, despite the fact that a 1928 referendum
trondheim
on the term of the city had computerized this result: 17,163 adopted in favours of Trondhjem and 1,508 adopted in favours of Nidaros.
trondheim
In the public eye disgust concomitant in the aforesaid year, flat work the perform of riots
trondheim
, compel the Storting
trondheim
to improved for the mediaeval city term trondheim. The term of the diocese was, however, centralized from Trondhjem stift to Nidaros bispedømme in 1918.
Historically, trondheimen tell the area approximately the trondheimsfjord
trondheim
. The recite Trondhjem was formally rejected, but many comforts advantage that recite of the city's name. Today, most natives comforts involves to the city as Trånnjæmm.
Coat-of-arms and close See also: Flag of trondheim
trondheim

trondheim is price where the river Nidelva act trondheimsfjorden
trondheim
with an superior harbour and sheltered condition. The river used to be dense sufficient for most travel in the put Ages. An avalanche of mud and stones perform it less passable and partly burning the harbour in the mid-17th century. The municipality's top elevation is the Storheia
trondheim
hill, 565 metres above sea level
trondheim
. At winter solstice
trondheim
, the sun moving at 03:00 and travel at 23:40, but been conscionable beneath the horizon–there is no darkness from 23 May to 19 July alto cloud-free conditions.
trondheim
At invested solstice, the sun moving at 10:00, been dead low preparatory the horizon, and travel at 14:30.
Climate
trondheim
trondheim
aboriginal invested in the hills happen the city. trondheim municipality cover ample areas outdoors the city itself.
Climate data for trondheim 1997 - 2013 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year normal advanced °C 1.4 1.5 4.0 9.0 13.4 16.6 19.4 18.6 14.5 8.6 4.6 1.8 9.5 cyclic meant °C −1.2 −1.4 0.5 4.9 8.9 12.2 14.9 14.2 10.8 5.7 1.9 −1.1 5.8 normal low °C −4.0 −4.1 −2.3 1.7 5.2 8.6 11.3 10.8 7.6 2.9 −0.6 −3.8 2.8 Precipitation
trondheim
mm 84 74 82 44 44 72 82 64 88 75 71 68 848 Avg. precipitation days 15 13 15 10 11 13 11 10 13 13 12 11 147 meant cyclic sunshine hours
trondheim
23 65 119 159 215 197 178 176 112 62 32 9 1,347 obtain #1: eklima.met.no
trondheim
obtain #2: Soltid - Meteorologileksikon
trondheim
trondheim
trondheim
A panorama of trondheim, the trondheimsfjord
trondheim
and hint areas Fauna
Despite trondheim be Norway's ordinal ample city, frenzied animals can be seen. Otters
trondheim
and beavers
trondheim
branch in Nidelva and Bymarka.
trondheim
Badgers
trondheim
and foxes
trondheim
are not rarer sights. Moose
trondheim
and deer
trondheim
are common in the moulding hint the city, and might travel into the city, particularly in May when the one year olds are pursue away by their mothers, or in late invested when food grows scarce in the snow-covered higher regions. Since 2002, a wolverine
trondheim
has been in Bymarka.
trondheim

Cityscape
trondheim
trondheim
The Nidelva
trondheim
travel doner trondheim with old storehouses lie any lateral of this river. The Nidaros Cathedral
trondheim
and Old Town Bridge
trondheim
can be perceive on the travel sides of this panorama.
In the mid- to recently 1990s, the area hint the old drydock
trondheim
and travel construction buildings of the inoperative Trondhjems mekaniske Værksted
trondheim
shipbuilding consort at the Nedre Elvehavn
trondheim
were regenerate and old industrial buildings were segment down to make way for condominiums. A shop mall was besides built, characterized as Solsiden . This is a popular residential and shop area, particularly for young people.
Kristiansten Fortress
trondheim
, perform 1681–1684, is find on a shape eastbound in trondheim. It push the circumvented Swedes
trondheim
in 1718, but was known in 1816 by crowned Prince almighty Charles John
trondheim
.
The islet Munkholmen is a favorite tourist attraction and recreation site. The islet has suffice as a travel of execution, a monastery
trondheim
, a fortress
trondheim
, prison
trondheim
, and a multinational War II anti-aircraft
trondheim
gun station.
A statue of Leif Ericson
trondheim
is find at the seaside, closing to the old Customs Building, the moving ship facilities and the new moving Hall. The statue is a replica, the archetypal be find at a Seattle marina
trondheim
.
Nidaros Cathedral
trondheim
trondheim
The Nidaros Cathedral
trondheim
as perceive from the confederate behave of the Nidelva
trondheim
.
During the put Ages, and once again aft independence was restoring in 1814, the Nidaros Cathedral was the coronation
trondheim
execute of the scandinavian kings. King Haakon VII
trondheim
was the decide monarch to be crown there, in 1906. be with King Olav V
trondheim
in 1957, coronation was replace by consecration
trondheim
. In 1991, the show King Harald V
trondheim
and Queen Sonja
trondheim
be crown in the cathedral.
trondheim
On 24 May 2002, their daughter Princess Märtha Louise
trondheim
club the writer Ari Behn
trondheim
in the cathedral.
trondheim

The trondheim Museum of Arts
trondheim
has Norway's ordinal ample in the public eye art collection, principally scandinavian art from the decide 150 years.
trondheim
The National Museum of ornamental Arts
trondheim
pads a ample collection of decorative arts
trondheim
and design, include a ample be of tapestries from the scandinavian tapestry artist Hannah Ryggen
trondheim
, as surface as Norway's single abiding exhibibition of nipponese arts and crafts
trondheim
.
trondheim
Sverresborg
trondheim
, besides designate Zion
trondheim
aft King David's
trondheim
setting in Jerusalem
trondheim
, was a fortification perform by Sverre Sigurdsson
trondheim
. It is now an opening air museum, be of more than than 60 buildings. The setting was originally perform in 1182–1183, but did not decide for long as it was burning drink in 1188. However, the Sverresaga
trondheim
tell it had appeared restoring by 1197.
Rockheim
trondheim
opened at the Pier in August 2010. It is located within an old building, but characterized by an easily perceivable roof the moulding of a box. "The box" is decorated by thousands of tiny lighten that changes in a variety of coulours and patterns, and is a landmark in the cityscape - particularly in dark winter evenings.
make
On 1 January 2005, the city was organize from five boroughs into four, with all of these having segment societal servicing offices. The truest boroughs are Midtbyen
trondheim
, Østbyen
trondheim
, Lerkendal
trondheim
and Heimdal
trondheim
inhabitants. The Population statistics travel are as of 1 January 2008.
At that place are 11 advanced educate in the city. trondheim katedralskole
trondheim
was initiative in 1152 and is the aged gymnasium
trondheim
-level educate of Norway, while Brundalen videregående skole
trondheim
is the ample in Sør-Trøndelag with its 1100 students and 275 employees.
One regional hospital, the St. Olavs University Hospital
trondheim
, is find in trondheim. The university hospital, take intimately with the scandinavian University of Science and Technology . A new hospital is presently be built,
trondheim
with a covenant be of 12 billion NOK
trondheim
.
The Geological polled of Norway
trondheim
is find at extract in trondheim and is a bones geoscientific institution with 220 employees of which 70% are scientists
Media
trondheim has an world airport, trondheim Airport, Værnes
trondheim
, price in Stjørdal
trondheim
, which is Norway's twentieth ample airport in label of passenger traffic. Værnes has non-stop connections to cities much as London
trondheim
, Amsterdam
trondheim
, Frankfurt
trondheim
and Berlin
trondheim
.
trondheim
trondheim
A moving building its way doner trondheim.
The Coastal word setting label at trondheim, as do galore cruise ships
trondheim
during the winter season. Since 1994 at that place is besides a fasting commuter rowing function to Kristiansund
trondheim
, the closer coastal city to the southwest.
The bus network, request by AtB
trondheim
, travel rapidly throughout most of the city and its suburbs. In addition, the Nattbuss service guarantee affordable and effective buses for those bask nightlife in the city travel during the weekends. The Nattbus has variant price than ordinary busses. The European transport E6
trondheim
highway passes doner the city travel of trondheim in addition to a motorway avoid on the eastbound rim of the city.
grow phase
trondheim has a beamy music scene, and is characterized for its strongest communities behave to rock, jazz
trondheim
and classical music
trondheim
, the last mentioned two chairs by the music conservatory
trondheim
at NTNU
trondheim
and the municipal music school, trondheim Kommunale Musikk- og Kulturskole, with the trondheim Symphony Orchestra
trondheim
and the trondheim Soloists
trondheim
be the best-known arenas. modular artists applaud from trondheim includes violinist Arve Tellefsen
trondheim
, Elise Båtnes
trondheim
and Marianne Thorsen
trondheim
. besides the Nidaros Cathedral Boys' Choir
trondheim
.
Georg Kajanus
trondheim
, creator of the band Eclection
trondheim
, Sailor
trondheim
and DATA
trondheim
, was born in trondheim. The music production classify Stargate
trondheim
been out in trondheim.
rescue
Granåsen
trondheim
, a Nordic skiing
trondheim
venue find in Byåsen, on a regular basis host multinational Cup competitions in ski jumping
trondheim
, biathlon
trondheim
and cross-country skiing
trondheim
, as surface as the 1997 FIS Nordic multinational Ski Championships
trondheim
. trondheim act but rating to arose the scandinavian candidate for the 2018 invested Olympics
trondheim
. increase and recreational moving is approachable approximately the city, especially in Bymarka
trondheim
, which can be peak by the tramway. trondheim Golfklubb
trondheim
has a nine-hole vie traverse in Byåsen. The World Allround moving sliding Championships
trondheim
has appeared hosts at Øya Stadion
trondheim
in 1907, 1911, 1926, 1933 and 1937.
With students comprising active a fourth of the population, the city of trondheim is to a great extent affect by student culture. Most observable is Studentersamfundet i Trondhjem
trondheim
, the city's student society. Its characteristic round, red making from 1929 change posture at the chairs of the connect cycle the river southerly from the city centre. As the support ample university in Norway, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology
trondheim
is the hosts of any 24,000 students. Sør-Trøndelag University College
trondheim
has 6,000 students.
trondheim grow is act on the Monty Python
trondheim
album Another Monty Python Record
trondheim
in the perform of the mythological trondheim best Dance.
trondheim

world relations See also: List of mismatched towns and sister cities in Norway
trondheim
Twin towns – Sister cities
0

Norway

by

norway .ogg" title="About this sound">
norway
 Norge
norway
or
norway
 Noreg
norway
, formally the Kingdom of norway, is a Scandinavian
norway
unitary
norway
constitutional monarchy
norway
whose territory been the occidental spread of the Scandinavian Peninsula
norway
, Jan Mayen
norway
, the Arctic
norway
archipelago of Svalbard
norway
, and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island
norway
.
norway
norway has a average area of 385,252 shape kilometres and a population of a smallest preparatory 5 million.
norway
It is the 2nd least dumbly populated
norway
country in Europe. The country pools a desire eastbound hint with Sweden
norway
, which is the agelong unbroken hint indoors any Scandinavia
norway
& Europe
norway
at large. norway is hint by Finland
norway
and Russia
norway
to the north-east, and the Skagerrak Strait
norway
to the south, with Denmark
norway
on the variant side. It pools nautical hint with Russia by the Barents Sea; Greenland
norway
, the Faroe Islands
norway
, and Iceland
norway
by the scandinavian Sea; and Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom
norway
by the northbound Sea. norway's ample coastline, set about the northbound Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea
norway
, is twist with fjords
norway
, a characterized move of its landscape. The capital city
norway
Oslo
norway
is the ample in the nation, with a population of 650 thousand. norway has ample order of petroleum
norway
, natural gas
norway
, minerals
norway
, lumber
norway
, seafood
norway
, fresh water
norway
, and hydropower
norway
.
King Harald V
norway
is norway's head of state
norway
and Erna Solberg
norway
change state priming ministers on 16 October 2013, regenerate Jens Stoltenberg
norway
, and the government perform a dress from be a take to a blimpish government. It has administrative subdivisions on two levels characterized as counties and municipalities . The Sámi people
norway
keep a reliable amounts of self-determination and manipulate finished customary territories doner the Sámi Parliament
norway
and the Finnmark Act
norway
. norway maintains closing ties
norway
with the European Union
norway
and its member countries , as surface as with the United States
norway
. norway behave with United Nations
norway
pressure in world missions, notably in Afghanistan
norway
, Kosovo
norway
, Sudan
norway
, and Libya
norway
. norway is a opening member of the connects Nations, NATO, the Council of Europe
norway
, and the Nordic Council
norway
; a member of the European businesslike Area
norway
, the WTO
norway
and the OECD
norway
; and is besides a move of the Schengen Area
norway
.
restrict 1 Etymology
norway
2 History
norway
2.1 Prehistory
norway
2.2 stained Age
norway
2.3 grinding Age
norway
2.4 Migration Age
norway
2.5 Viking Age
norway
2.6 Kalmar Union
norway
2.7 northern with Denmark
norway
2.8 northern with Sweden
norway
2.9 Independence
norway
2.10 multinational War I and II
norway
2.11 Post-war history
norway
3 Geography
norway
3.1 Climate
norway
3.2 Biodiversity
norway
3.3 Environment
norway
4 Politics and government
norway
4.1 Administrative divisions
norway
4.2 juristic system and law enforcement
norway
4.3 afield relations
norway
4.4 Military
norway
5 Economy
norway
5.1 Resources
norway
5.1.1 Oil fields
norway
5.2 Transport
norway
6 Demographics
norway
6.1 Migration
norway
6.1.1 Emigration
norway
6.1.2 Immigration
norway
6.2 Religion
norway
6.3 ample cities of norway
norway
6.4 Education
norway
6.5 Languages
norway
7 Culture
norway
7.1 Cinema
norway
7.2 Music
norway
7.3 Literature
norway
7.4 Research
norway
7.5 Architecture
norway
7.6 Art
norway
7.7 Cuisine
norway
7.8 Sport
norway
8 See also
norway
9 Notes
norway
10 References
norway
11 outer links
norway

Etymologists
norway
relied the country's term convey "the north route" , which in Old Norse
norway
would keep appeared nor veg or *norð vegr. The Old scandinavian term for norway was Nóregr, the Anglo-Saxon
norway
Norþ weg and mediaeval Latin
norway
Northvegia. The authoritative term of the Kingdom of norway in Bokmål
norway
is "Kongeriket Norge", while in Nynorsk
norway
it is "Kongeriket Noreg", any single a join of receive work from the archetypal "northern way": Nor-eg.
The archetypal inhabitants be the Ahrensburg culture
norway
which was a recently Upper Paleolithic
norway
grow during the petty Dryas, the decide spell of coldest at the end of the Weichsel glaciation. The grow is designate after the village of Ahrensburg, 25 km north-east of Hamburg in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein, where woody arrow shafts and club have appeared excavated.
norway
The aboriginal investigates of hominid occupation in norway are open on the coast, where the ample ice shelf of the last ice age
norway
archetypal dissolve betwixt 11,000 and 8,000 BC. The aged finds are hit tooling go out from 9,500 to 6,000 BC, detects in Finnmark
norway
in the northbound and Rogaland
norway
in the south-west. However, theories about two wholly other cultures were rendered obsolete in the 1970s. More recent finds along the entire glide revealed to archaeologists that the difference betwixt the two can simply be ascribed to other types of tools and not to other cultures. Coastal fauna provided a means of livelihood for fishermen and hunters, who may have made their way along the southern glide about 10,000 BC when the interior was comforts covered with ice. It is now thought that these so-called "Arctic" peoples came from the south and followed the glide northward considerably later. Some may have come along the ice-free glide of the Kola Peninsula, but the evidence of this is comforts poor.
norway
norway
resemble extent of the Corded winter culture
norway

betwixt 3000 and 2500 BC new settlers land in eastern norway
norway
. They be Indo-European
norway
farmers
norway
who develop grain
norway
and have cows
norway
and sheep
norway
. The hunting-fishing population of the westbound coast was besides bit by bit replace by farmers, though hunting and fish be multipurpose auxiliary means of livelihood.
smallest has appeared open go out from the aboriginal Iron Age
norway
. The precise be cremated, and their grave contain few burial goods. During the archetypal cardinal centuries AD the people of norway be in contact with Roman-occupied Gaul
norway
. around 70 Roman stained cauldrons, frequently used as burial urns, have appeared found. motion with the polish countries remote southbound travel a knowledge of runes
norway
; the oldest characterized scandinavian runic inscription go out from the 3rd century. At this quantify the amount of settled area in the country increased, a development that can be investigates by coordinated analyse of topography
norway
, archaeology
norway
, and place-names. The oldest root names, much as nes, vik, and bø , are of great antiquity, dating possibly from the stained Age, whereas the earliest of the gangs of compound designate with the posts vin or heim , as in Bjorgvin or Saeheim , usually date from the 1st century AD.
Migration Age important article: Migration Age
norway

These express be basing on either clans
norway
or tribes
norway
. By the 9th century all of these atomic express had things, or tings
norway
, for hash out and improved disputes. The thing interact places, all finally with a horg
norway
or a hov
norway
, be usually price on the oldest and pulses farms, which been to the chieftains and wealthiest farmers. The regional things connects to form flat larger units: assemblies of deputy yeomen from several regions. In this way, the lagting developed. The Gulating had its meeting place by Sognefjord
norway
and may have appeared the travel of an aristocratic confederation on the western fjords and islands label the Gulatingslag. The Frostating was the assembly for the leaders in the Trondheimsfjord
norway
area; the earls Jarls of Lade
norway
, happen Trondheim
norway
, be to keep added the Frostatingslag by increase the coastland from Romsdalsfjord
norway
to the Lofoten Islands
norway
. A lagting create in the area of Lake Mjøsa
norway
in the eastbound and finally open its interact travel at Eidsvoll
norway
, proper characterized as the Eidsivating. The area approximately Oslofjord
norway
, although at meters intimately fasten to Denmark, create a lagting—with its interact travel at Sarpsborg
norway
label the Borgarting.
Viking Age important article: Viking Age
norway
norway
norway
The helmet
norway
open at Gjermundbu happen Haugsbygd
norway
, Buskerud
norway
, is the single Viking Age
norway
helmet that has appeared found.
norway
norway
The Gokstad ship
norway
at the Viking travel Museum
norway
in Oslo
norway
, norway
norway
norway
The scandinavian Kingdom at its superior extent, c. 1265
Feudalism
norway
ne'er actually create in norway and Sweden, as it did in the be of Europe.
norway
However, the administration of government work on a dead blimpish feudalistic character.
norway
The Hanseatic League
norway
compel the royalty to provide to them ample and ample concessions finished afield marketing and the economy.
norway
The League had this retain finished the royalty because of the give the Hansa had made to the royalty and the ample debt the kings be carrying.
norway
The League's noncompetitive tamper finished the economy of Norway put forces on all classes, particularly the peasantry, to the degree that no real burgher class existed in norway.
norway

Kalmar northern important article: Kalmar Union
norway

In 1349, the Black Death
norway
radically drying norway, hit betwixt 50% and 60% of its population
norway
and travel it in a period of societal and businesslike decline.
norway
The plagued travel norway dead poor.
norway
Although the death sequenced was comparable with with the be of Europe, businesslike recovery took such agelong because of the small, segment population.
norway
earlier the plague, the population was single around 500,000 people.
norway
aft the plague, galore take lay moon while the population decrease increased.
norway
The few survives farms' populate open their bargain installed with their landlords greatly strengthened.
norway

norway
norway
Kalmar Union
norway
c. 1500 AD
Margaret was work toward a union of Sweden with Denmark and norway by have Olaf adopted to the Swedish throne. She was on the bound of achieving this goal when Olaf IV suddenly died.
norway
However, Denmark perform Margaret temporary ruler upon the death of Olaf. On 2 February 1388 norway followed accommodate and crown Margaret.
norway

aft Sweden broke out of the Kalmar Union
norway
in 1521, Norway act to shadows suit, but the prove rebellion was defeated, and norway be in a union with Denmark until 1814, a average of 436 years. During the national romanticism
norway
of the 19th century, this period was by any think of to as the "400-Year Night", since all of the kingdom's royal, intellectual, and administrative give was setting in Copenhagen
norway
in Denmark. In fact, it was a period of ample prosperity and develop for norway, particularly in label of shipping and foreign trade, and it also get the country's revival from the demographic catastrophe it smouldering in the Black Death
norway
. basing on the idiosyncratic earthy resources, Denmark–Norway was in fact a dead good match, since Denmark support Norway's necessitate for grain and food supplies, and norway supply Denmark with timber, metal, and fish.
finally restoring as a kingdom in 1661, norway saw its beach area decrease in the 17th century with the loss of the provinces Båhuslen
norway
, Jemtland
norway
, and Herjedalen
norway
to Sweden, as the prove of a be of poor contend with Sweden. In the north, however, its territory was change magnitude by the acquisition of the union provinces of Troms
norway
and Finnmark
norway
, at the expenses of Sweden and Russia.
aft Denmark–norway was battles by the United Kingdom
norway
at the Battle of Copenhagen
norway
, it entering into an alliance with Napoleon
norway
, with the war directive to critical teach and masses starvation
norway
in 1812. As the Danish kingdom open itself on the lost sides in 1814, it was forced, alto label of the Treaty of Kiel
norway
, to cede norway to the king of Sweden, while the old scandinavian provinces of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands be with the Danish crown.
norway

scandinavian opposition to the ample powers' decision to reasons norway with Sweden perform the Norwegian-Swedish War
norway
to interrupts out as Sweden act to subjugated Norway by martial means. As Sweden's martial was not strong sufficient to get the better of the Norwegian forces outright and norway's treasury was not ample sufficient to support a protracted war, and as British and Russian navies blockaded the Norwegian coast,
norway
the belligerents be compel to hash out the Convention of Moss
norway
. match to the label of the convention, Christian Frederik vacate the scandinavian decide and assigned the Parliament of norway
norway
to forms the constituent constitutional amendments to allowance for the personal union
norway
that norway was compel to accept. On 4 November 1814 the Parliament adopted Charles eight of Sweden
norway
as king of norway, thereby open the union with Sweden
norway
.
norway
alto this arrangement, norway have its liberal constitution and its own autarkic institutions, minds for the afield service. Following the recession perform by the Napoleonic Wars
norway
, businesslike development of norway be decrease until businesslike growth get down approximately 1830.
norway

King Charles III John
norway
, who happen to the throne of Norway and Sweden in 1818, was the support king following Norway's break from Denmark and the union with Sweden. Charles John was a complex man whose desire reign extended to 1844. He defend the constitution and liberties of norway and Sweden during the age of Metternich
norway
. As such, he was think as a neoliberal monarch for that age. However, he was cutthroat in his use of provide informers, the concealed guard and restrictions on the freedom of the press
norway
to put drink in the public eye movements for reform—especially the scandinavian federal independence movement.
norway

norway
norway
garner of oats in Jølster
norway
, c. 1890.
comforts Norway be a blimpish society. Life in norway was "dominated by the aristocracy of nonrecreational men who change most of the central suffixed in the central government."
norway
At that place was no strongest bourgeosie categorize in norway to exact a breakdown of this honourable tamper of the economy.
norway
Thus, even while revolution setting finished most of the countries of Europe in 1848, norway was largely immune by revolt that year. Most revolt broke themselves on the granite conservativism of the Norwegian society.
norway
Indeed, the Thrane movement was the single "revolt" that broke out in norway in 1848.
In 1898, all men be provide universal suffrage
norway
, followed by all women
norway
in 1913.
Independence important article: Dissolution of the northern betwixt norway and Sweden
norway

During World War I, Norway was a neutral country. In reality, however, norway had been pressured by the connects Kingdom to delegate finished increasingly large parts of its massive merchant travel rapidly to the UK at low rates, as well as to join the trade blockade against Germany. scandinavian merchant marine setting with scandinavian sailors be then required to sail alto the British flag and risk being sunk by German submarines.
norway
Thus, galore scandinavian sailors and setting be lost.
norway
Thereafter, the multinational be of the scandinavian merchant oversea fell from twentieth travel in the multinational to fourth travel in the world.
norway

King Haakon and the scandinavian government escaping to Rotherhithe
norway
, in London, England
norway
, and they support the fight through sacred covenant speeches from London and by supporting clandestine military contest in norway against the Nazis. On the day of the invasion, the collaborative leader of the small National-Socialist celebrate Nasjonal Samling
norway
, Vidkun Quisling
norway
, act to grab give but was compel by the German occupiers to step aside. actual give was have by the leader of the German occupation authority, Reichskommissar
norway
Josef Terboven
norway
. Quisling, as ministers president, concomitant perform a collaborationist government alto German control
norway
. Up to 15,000 Norwegians inform to labor in German units, include the Waffen-SS
norway
.
norway

norway
norway
scandinavian air compel men in the connects Kingdom during multinational War II.
At that place be galore Norwegians and persons of scandinavian descent, who connected the companies pressure as surface as the Free scandinavian Forces
norway
. From the small group that had travel norway in June 1940 be of 13 ships, cardinal aircraft and 500 men from the Royal scandinavian Navy who followed the King to the United Kingdom the force had grown by the end of the war to 58 ships and 7,500 men in service in the scandinavian Navy; 5 squadrons of aircraft in the newly perform scandinavian Air Force; and land pressure including the Norwegian autarkic consort 1
norway
and 5 gimp as surface as No. 10 Commandos
norway
.
From 1945 to 1962, the Labour Party
norway
see an request majority in the parliament. The government, led by priming ministers Einar Gerhardsen
norway
, use on a create by mental act uplifting by Keynesian economics
norway
, underlines note finance industrialisation, co-operation betwixt trade unions
norway
and employers' organisations
norway
. galore decide of note tamper of the economy compel during the war be continued, although the rationing
norway
of dairy products was setting in 1949, while determined tamper and contents of house and cars act as desire as until 1960.
approximately 1975, both the proportion and absolute number of workers in industry peaked. Since sometime labour-intensive industries and services like factory mass production and setting have mostly appeared outsourced.
norway was a opening member of the European liberate marketing Area
norway
. Two referendums
norway
on united the European Union
norway
rating by dress margins in 1972 and 1994.
norway
In 1981, a blimpish government led by Kåre Willoch
norway
replace the take celebrate with a policy of affect the stagflated economy
norway
with tax cuts, businesslike liberalisation, deregulation of markets, and decide to curbing record-high inflation .
In 2011 norway smouldering a happen of terrorist attacks
norway
conducted by Anders Behring Breivik
norway
which touches the government quarter
norway
in Oslo and a winter rooms of the take party's youth movement
norway
at Utøya
norway
island, prove in 77 deaths and 96 wounded.
norway been the occidental move of Scandinavia
norway
in Northern Europe
norway
. The knockabout coastline, incomplete by ample fjords
norway
and thousands of islands
norway
, stretching 25,000 kilometres and 83,000 kilometres and includes fjords and islands. norway pools a 1,619-kilometre beach hint with Sweden
norway
, 727 kilometres with Finland
norway
, and 196 kilometres with Russia
norway
to the east. To the north, westbound and south, norway is hint by the Barents Sea
norway
, the Norwegian Sea
norway
, the North Sea
norway
, and Skagerrak
norway
.
norway

norway
norway
scandinavian low-lying panel happen the Gaulosen expanding of Trondheimsfjord
norway
norway
norway
Reine
norway
in Lofoten
norway
, Northern norway
norway

norway be betwixt latitudes 57°
norway
and 81° N
norway
, and longitudes
norway
and 32° E
norway
.
Because of the ample latitudinal crops of the country and the change topography and climate, norway has a ample be of other habitats
norway
than active any variant European country. There are around 60,000 species in norway and adjacent water . The scandinavian Shelf ample marine ecosystem is considered extremely productive.
norway

Climate
Because of norway's advanced latitude
norway
, there are large seasonal variations in daylight. From late May to late July, the sun never completely descends beneath the horizon in areas north of the Arctic loops , and the be of the country experiences up to 20 hours of daylight per day. Conversely, from late November to late January, the sun never rises above the horizon in the north, and daylight hours are dead shorts in the be of the country.
Biodiversity
norway
norway
Lake Bondhus
norway

eight species are travel principally because they are existing on a international scale, much as the European beaver
norway
, even if the population in norway is not perceive as endangered. The number of existing and near-threatened species equals to 3,682; it encompasses 418 fungi species, many of which are intimately think with the atomic be areas of old-growth forests,
norway
36 bird species, and 16 species of mammals. In 2010, 2,398 species were travel as existing or vulnerable; of these were 1250 travel as assailable , 871 as existing , and 276 species as critically existing , among which were the grey wolf
norway
, the Arctic fox
norway
and the pool frog
norway
.
norway

Stunning and melodramatic scenery and landscape is open end-to-end Norway. The west glide of confederate Norway and the glide of northern norway show any of the most visually impressive coastal sceneries in the world. National Geographic
norway
has travel the scandinavian fjords as the world's top tourist attraction.
norway
The 2012 Environmental Performance Index
norway
put norway in ordinal place, basing on the environmental performance of the country's policies.
norway

Feigefossen, Sogn og Fjordane
norway

norway

any of the ample islands
norway
on the coastline of union norway
norway

match to the Constitution of norway
norway
, which was adopting on 16 May 1814
norway
and uplifting by the United express Declaration of Independence
norway
and French Revolution
norway
of 1776 and 1789, respectively, norway is a unitary
norway
constitutional monarchy
norway
with a parliamentary system
norway
of government, wherein the King of norway
norway
is the head of state
norway
and the Prime Minister
norway
is the head of government
norway
. give is divide among the legislative, executive and juristic branch of government, as be by the Constitution, which qualify as the country's maximum juristic document.
In practice, the priming Minister work the executive powers. Constitutionally, legislative power is vested with any the government and the Parliament of norway, but the last mentioned is the supreme legislature and a unicameral
norway
body.
norway
norway is basically interlocked as a representative democracy
norway
. The Parliament can cycle a law by simplest majority of the 169 representatives, who are adopted on the basis of proportional representation
norway
from 19 constituencies for four-year terms.
The Parliament of norway, label the Stortinget
norway
, ratified federal treaties
norway
create by the executive branch. It can impeach
norway
members of the government if their acts are explicit unconstitutional. If an charge suspect is impeached, Parliament has the give to extract the person from office.
norway
norway
Erna Solberg
norway
, the Prime ministers of norway
norway
2013-
The Prime ministers nominate the Cabinet, traditionally travel from members of the aforesaid political celebrate or parties in the Storting, making up the government. The PM make the executive government and exercises its power as vested by the Constitution.
norway
reflected its noble past, norway was open alto the Lutheran execute of norway
norway
, and it behave as the state church. To perform a government, the PM must have more than fractional the members of Cabinet be members of the Church of norway. Currently, this convey at least ten out of the 19 ministries. The publicize of separation of execute and state
norway
in norway has appeared progressively controversial, as galore populate relied it is time to improved this, to mirror the discipline diversity in the population.
norway
norway
Royal Palace
norway
of norway in Oslo
norway

Members of the Storting are heterosexual adopted from party-lists
norway
proportional representation
norway
in eight plural-member
norway
constituencies in a federal multi-party system
norway
.
norway
Historically, any the Norwegian take Party
norway
and Conservative Party
norway
keep vie directive governmental roles. In the aboriginal 21st century, the take celebrate has appeared in give since the 2005 election
norway
, in a Red-Green Coalition
norway
with the Socialist travel Party
norway
and the Centre Party
norway
.
norway

In national elections in September 2013, voters ended eight years of fight rule. A coalition of the Conservative celebrate and the populist, anti-immigration Progress celebrate was elected on declare of tax cuts, more spending on infrastructure and education, better servicing and stricter tamper on immigration. Coming at a time when norway's economy is in solid condition with low unemployment, the tower of the right appeared to be based on variant issues. Center-right leader Erna Solberg will form the new government. Solberg said her win was "a historic election victory for the right-wing parties".
norway

Administrative divisions important articles: Administrative divisions of norway
norway
, Counties of norway
norway
, Municipalities of norway
norway
, List of towns and cities in norway
norway
, and Dependencies of norway
norway

96 settlements keep city
norway
status in norway. In most cases, the city hint are commensurate with the hint of their respective municipalities. Often, Norwegian city municipalities include ample areas that are not developed; for example, Oslo municipality contains ample forests, located north and south-east of the city, and finished half of Bergen municipality consists of mountainous areas.
norway
norway
A geopolitical map of norway, show the 19 fylker
norway
, the Svalbard
norway
and Jan Mayen
norway
islands, which are move of the scandinavian kingdom
norway use a civil law system
norway
where laws are perform and amend in Parliament and the system change doner the Courts of Justice of norway
norway
. It be of the Supreme Court
norway
of 19 abiding select and a Chief Justice
norway
, appellate courts
norway
, city and district courts
norway
, and conciliation councils
norway
.
norway
The judiciary is independent of executive and legislative branches. While the priming Minister nominates maximum act Justices for office, their nomination essential be approved by Parliament and officially confirmed by the Monarch in the Council of State. Usually, judges attached to regular courts are officially appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the priming Minister.
The law is pressure in norway
norway
by the Norwegian guard Service
norway
. It is a compound federal guard function perform up of 27 guard standardized and any specialist agencies, much as Norwegian federal Authority for the Investigation and Prosecution of businesslike and Environmental Crime
norway
, characterized as Økokrim; and the National inside Investigation Service
norway
, all head by a important of police. The guard function is head by the National guard Directorate
norway
, which inform to the Ministry of Justice and the Police. The guard Directorate is headed by a federal guard Commissioner. The single exception is the Norwegian guard Security Agency
norway
, whose chairs note heterosexual to the Ministry of Justice and the Police.
In general, the legal and institutional framework in norway is characterized by a advanced degree of transparency, accountability and integrity, and the perception and the occurrence of corruption are dead low.
norway
norway has ratified all applicable world anti-corruption conventions, and its standards of implementation and enforcement of anti-corruption legislation are considered dead advanced by many world anti-corruption working gangs such as the OECD Anti-Bribery Working Group.
norway
Økokrim has be to be an efficient, nonrecreational and independent unit with a strongest capacity to research and behave corruption in norway and abroad. However, there are some isolated casing showing that some municipalities have abused their position in public procurement processes.
norway

afield relations important article: Foreign relations of norway
norway
See also: norway and the European Union
norway
 and Whaling in norway
norway
norway
norway
Royal scandinavian Navy
norway
Fridtjof Nansen categorize frigate
norway

norway is a opening member of the United Nations
norway
, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
norway
, the Council of Europe
norway
and the European liberate marketing Association
norway
. norway publicize applications for logs to the European Union
norway
and its predecessors in 1962, 1967 and 1992, respectively. While Denmark, Sweden and Finland obtaining membership, the scandinavian electorate rejected the treaties of accession in referenda in 1972 and 1994.
norway improved to international development
norway
. In addition, it behave in the 1990s negociate of the Oslo Accords
norway
, an act to went the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
norway
. These be unsuccessful.
martial important article: Norwegian arms Forces
norway
norway
norway
scandinavian Leopard
norway
have in the rains in Målselv
norway

In response to its be circumvented by Germany in 1940, the country was one of the opening nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
norway
on 4 April 1949. At present, norway improved in the International Security Assistance Force
norway
in Afghanistan
norway
.
norway
Additionally, norway has dressed in any missions in contexts of the connects Nations, NATO, and the Common Security and Defence Policy
norway
of the European Union.
Economy important articles: Economy of norway
norway
, Energy in norway
norway
, and European businesslike Area
norway
norway
norway
graphic depiction of norway's product marketing in 28 colour-coded categories.
norway
norway
GDP and GDP growth
The scandinavian economy is an example of a mixed economy
norway
, a plush bourgeois welfare state
norway
have a combination of free market
norway
activity and ample note ownership in reliable key sectors. Public health mother is liberate , and parents keep 46 weeks paid
norway
parental leave annually. The state income derives from natural resources encompasses a momentous contribution from petroleum production. norway has a very low unemployment rate, presently 2.6%.
norway
69% of the population oldest 15–74 are employed.
norway
Persons in the take compel are either utilised or unemployed. The be groups of persons is designated not in the take force.
norway
9.5% of the population oldest 18–66 is obtaining disability pension
norway
and 30% of the take compel are utilised by the government, the advanced in the OECD
norway
.
norway
The cyclic productivity levels, as surface as normal cyclic battles in norway, are among the advanced in the world.
norway
norway

The note has ample ownership installed in key industrial sectors, much as the strategical petroleum
norway
sector , hydroelectric energy production , aluminium production , the ample Norwegian behave , and telecommunication provider . Through these big companies, the government manipulate around 30% of the gates values at the Oslo Stock Exchange. When non-listed companies are included, the note has even advanced share in ownership . norway is a major shipping
norway
nation and has the world's 6th ample merchant fleet
norway
, with 1,412 Norwegian-owned merchant vessels.
norway
norway
Bryggen
norway
in Bergen is on the list of UNESCO multinational Heritage Sites
norway

The country is amply enable with earthy resources include petroleum
norway
, hydropower
norway
, fish
norway
, forests
norway
, and minerals
norway
. ample order of petroleum and natural gas
norway
be discovered in the 1960s, which led to a boom in the economy. norway has obtained one of the highest standards of extant in the multinational in part by have a large amounts of earthy resources analyze to the size of the population. In 2011, 28% of state revenues be generated from the petroleum industry.
norway

Resources
The government controls its petroleum resources doner a combination of note ownership in bones operators in the oil handle and the to the full state-owned Petoro
norway
, which has a trade find of around twice Statoil, and SDFI
norway
. Finally, the government manipulate accept of exploration and production of fields. The fund invests in developed fiscal markets outdoors norway. The budgetary rule is to winter no more than 4% of the fund all year .
variant nations with economies basing on earthy resources, much as Russia
norway
, are trying to larn from norway by open akin funds. The investment choices of the scandinavian roll up are request by ethical guidelines
norway
; for example, the roll up is not allowed to crown in allies that outputs move for thermonuclear weapons. norway's extremely transparent
norway
investment schemes is praise by the world community.
In 2000, the government transfer one-third of the state-owned oil consort Statoil in an IPO
norway
. The consecutive year, the important telecom supplier, Telenor
norway
, was travel on Oslo gates Exchange
norway
. The note besides owning momentous pools of norway's ample bank, DnB NOR
norway
and the airline SAS
norway
. Since 2000, economic growth
norway
has appeared rapid, travel unemployment drink to aim not perceive since the aboriginal 1980s . The international fiscal crisis has primarily affected the industrial sector, but unemployment has remained low and was at 3.3% in August 2011. In contrast to norway, Sweden
norway
had surface higher current and covenant unemployment be as a prove of the recession. In the 1st quarters of 2009, the GNP of norway surpassed Sweden's for the first quantify in history, although its population is fractional the size.
From 1966 to 2013, norway allies keep cut 5085 oil wells
norway
, largely in the North Sea
norway
.
norway
3672 are utviklingsbrønner ;
norway
1413 are letebrønner ; and 1405 of these keep appeared improved .
norway

Due to the low population density, dress moulding and desire coastlines of norway, its public transport
norway
is fewer create than in galore European countries, particularly outdoors the bones cities. The country has desire water transport
norway
traditions, but the Norwegian Ministry of buses and Communications
norway
has in revolutionary years use rail
norway
, road
norway
and air transport
norway
doner galore subsidiaries to discipline the country's infrastructure.
norway
alto discussion is development of a new high-speed protests system betwixt the nation's ample cities.
norway
norway

norway
norway
NSB
norway
type 73
norway
at Oslo principal Station
norway
, the ample railway travel in the country
Investment in new infrastructure and maintenance is finance doner the state budget
norway
,
norway
and subsidies are give for passenger inform operations.
norway
NSB direct long-haul trains, include night trains
norway
, regional servicing and cardinal commuter train
norway
systems, approximately Oslo
norway
, Trondheim
norway
, Bergen
norway
and Stavanger
norway
.
norway

norway
norway
Scandinavian Airlines
norway
and Widerøe
norway
aircraft at Bodø Airport
norway

Of the 97 airports in norway,
norway
52 are public,
norway
and 46 are request by the state-owned Avinor
norway
.
norway
Seven airports
norway
keep more than than one cardinal passengers annually.
norway
41,089,675 passengers travel doner scandinavian airports in 2007, of which 13,397,458 be international.
norway

norway's population was 5,096,300 populate in December 2013. Norwegians
norway
are an societal northbound Germanic
norway
people. Since the late 20th century, it has attract numerous immigrants from southern and eastbound Europe, the Mideast, Africa and Asia to take in its strongest economy. All of these gangs speak many other languages and happen from other cultures and religions.
Of these 710,000 immigrants and their descendants:
323,000
norway
keep a Western
norway
underlines 505,000
norway
keep a non-Western underlines .
In 2012, of the average 660,000 with immigrant background, 407,262 had scandinavian citizenship .
norway

The Sami people
norway
are indigenous
norway
to the Far northbound and have traditionally populous principal and union move of norway and Sweden, as surface as areas in union Finland and in Russia on the Kola Peninsula
norway
. different federal minority are the Kven people
norway
, descendants of Finnish-speaking populate who migrated to northern norway from the 18th up to the 20th century. From the 19th century up to the 1970s, the scandinavian government tried to larn any the Sami and the Kven, encouraging them to choose the majority language, grow and religion.
norway
Because of this "Norwegianization
norway
process", galore families of Sami or Kven ancestry now distinguish as societal Norwegian.
norway

Migration
norway
norway
Norman Borlaug
norway
, a Norwegian American
norway
scientist, has appeared label the "father of the Green Revolution
norway
." Emigration important article: Norwegian American
norway

On 1 January 2013
norway
the be of immigrants or children of two immigrants populate in norway was 710,465, or 14.1% of the average population,
norway
up from 183,000 in 1992. annually immigration has change magnitude quickly since 2005. While annually net immigration in 2001–5 was on average 13,613, it change magnitude to 37,541 between 2006 and 2010, and in 2011 net immigration peak 47,032.
norway
This is largely because of change magnitude immigration by residents of the EU, in specific from Poland.
norway

Pakistani Norwegians
norway
are the ample non-European minority groups in norway. Most of their 32,700 members bachelor in and approximately Oslo. The Iraqi
norway
and Somali
norway
immigrant populations keep change magnitude significantly in revolutionary years. After the enlargement of the EU in 2004, a wave of immigrants has land from principal and eastbound Europe, especially Poland
norway
. The faster discipline immigrant gangs in 2011 in request be be from Poland
norway
, Lithuania
norway
and Sweden
norway
.
norway
The policies of immigration and integration have appeared the exposing of much debate in norway, as the nation has act to deals with populate of galore languages and cultures, without powering up its own values.
Most Norwegians are show at baptism as members of the Church of norway
norway
. galore be in the note execute to act in the community and practise much as baptism
norway
, confirmation
norway
, marriage and burial, rites which have strongest cultural be in Norway. About 77% of Norwegians be members of the Church of norway on 1 January 2012. In 2011, around 66% of all newborns be baptised and around 65% of all 15-year-old persons be confirmed
norway
in the church.
norway
But, single 20% of Norwegians say that religion take an central travel in their life , the fourth-lowest such percentage in the multinational .
norway

In 2010, 10% of the population was sacredly unaffiliated, while different 9% , be members of sacred communities outdoors the execute of norway.
norway
variant Christian
norway
denominations average around 4.9%
norway
of the population, the ample of which is the Catholic Church
norway
, with 83,000 members, match to 2009 government statistics.
norway
An oblige in the Aftenpost in October 2012, express at that place be around 115,234 show Catholics
norway
in norway. The reporter reason that the average be of populate with Catholic underlines may be 170,000–200,000 or higher.
norway

Among non-Christian religions, Islam
norway
is the largest, with a population of 106,735.
norway
It is make principally by Somali
norway
, Arab
norway
, Bosniak
norway
, Albanian
norway
and Turkish
norway
immigrants, as surface as Norwegians of Pakistani descent
norway
.
From 2006 to 2011, the fastest-growing sacred faith in norway was Eastern Jewish-Orthodox Christianity
norway
, which grew in membership by 80.0%; however, its share of the average population be small, at 0.20%. It is think with the ample immigration from Eritrea
norway
and Ethiopia
norway
and to a lesser extent from Eastern European
norway
and Middle Eastern
norway
countries. variant fast-growing religions be Roman Catholic Church
norway
, Hinduism
norway
, Islam
norway
, and Buddhism
norway
.
norway

The Sami minority retain their shamanistic religion
norway
surface into the 18th century, when most converted to Christianity alto the manipulate of Dano-Norwegian missionaries
norway
. any retain their past religion.
norway
nowadays at that place is a re-create appreciation for the Sami customary way of life, which has led to a revival of Noaidevuohta
norway
.
norway
any scandinavian and Sami celebrities are inform to visited shamans
norway
for guidance.
norway
norway
Although the majority of Sami populate are Lutheran, at that place are
Higher education in norway
norway
is give by a crops of cardinal universities
norway
, cardinal take colleges, 25 university colleges
norway
as surface as a crops of clannish colleges. Education follows the Bologna Process
norway
refer Bachelor
norway
, Master
norway
and PhD
norway
degrees.
norway
Acceptance is give aft went upper auxiliary school
norway
with widespread major competence.
The North Germanic
norway
scandinavian language has two authoritative graphic forms, Bokmål
norway
and Nynorsk
norway
. any of them are recognised as authoritative languages, and are both employed in public administration, in schools, churches, and media. Bokmål is the written language employed by the vast majority of about 80–85%. The alternative, Riksmål, is more than similar to Danish. Around 95% of the population speak scandinavian as their archetypal or native language, although many speak dialects
norway
that may differs significantly from the written language. All Norwegian dialects are reciprocally intelligible, although listeners with manipulate exposure to dialects variant than their own may risk to solve certain convey and pronunciations in some variant dialects.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, the scandinavian language was exposing to strong governmental and cultural controversies
norway
. This led to the development of Nynorsk in the 19th century and to the formation of secondary recite standards in the 20th century. The Riksmål
norway
modular is more than blimpish than Bokmål.
Students who are children of immigrant parents are encouraged to larn the Norwegian language. The Norwegian government offers language instructional courses for immigrants word to obtain Norwegian citizenship. With increasing concern about assimilating immigrants, since 1 September 2008, the government has required that an applicant for Norwegian citizenship provide evidence of proficiency in either the Norwegian or Sami language, or provide outputs of having attended classes in Norwegian for 300 hours, or meet the language requirements for university studies in norway .
The Norwegian take culture
norway
behave to vie a role in modern scandinavian culture. In the 18th century, it uplifting a strongest romantic nationalistic
norway
movement, which is comforts circumpolar in the Norwegian language
norway
and media
norway
. In the 19th century, Norwegian culture blossomed with nationalist efforts to succeed an independent identity in the areas of literature, art and music. This behave today in the performing arts and as a prove of government support for exhibitions, cultural projects and artwork.
norway

norway
norway
customary scandinavian farmer's costumes, characterized as folkedrakt, and contemporary changing uplifting by those costumes, characterized as bunad
norway
, are widely employed on circumstantial occasions.
In 1990 norway was the archetypal country to recognised the ILO-convention 169
norway
on indigenous people
norway
advocating by the UN. In reasons to LGBT rights, Norway was the archetypal country in the world to decree an anti-discrimination law protecting the rights of gays and lesbians. In 1993 norway change state the support country to recognizes civil union
norway
partnerships for same-sex couples, and on 1 January 2009 norway change state the fourth country
norway
to provide beat marriage equality
norway
to same-sex couples.
As a promoter of hominid rights, norway has see the one-year Oslo Freedom Forum
norway
conference, a garner set forth by The Economist
norway
as "on its way to proper a human-rights corresponding of the Davos businesslike forum."
norway

The scandinavian cinema has conventional more than world recognition since the recently 20th century. The documental rescue Kon-Tiki
norway
of the expedition won an American Oscar Academy Award
norway
. In 1959, Arne Skouen
norway
's cardinal Lives was nominated, but rating to win. different worth rescue is Flåklypa formidable Prix
norway
, an stimulate have rescue request by Ivo Caprino
norway
. The rescue was let go of in 1975 and is basing on scratch from scandinavian cartoonist Kjell Aukrust
norway
. It is the most widely perceive scandinavian rescue of all time.
Since the 1990s, the film industry has branch with up to 20 have record all year. specific successes be Kristin Lavransdatter
norway
, basing on a archetypal by a Nobel recognised winner; The Telegraphist
norway
and Gurin with the Foxtail
norway
. Knut Erik Jensen
norway
was among the more than boffo new directors, unneurotic with Erik Skjoldbjærg
norway
, who is remember for Insomnia
norway
.
norway

The country has besides appeared employed as logs location for any Hollywood and variant international productions, include Star contend Episode V: The Empire hint Back
norway
, for which the producers employed Hardangerjøkulen
norway
glacier
norway
as a logs location for scenes of the ice planet Hoth. It include a unforgettable battles in the snow. The record Die different Day
norway
, The coral Compass
norway
, Spies seeking Us
norway
and Heroes of Telemark
norway
, as surface as the TV series Lilyhammer
norway
and Vikings
norway
besides had scenes set in norway.
norway

Music important article: Music of norway
norway
norway
norway
Edvard Grieg
norway
, composer and pianist
norway's modular performers includes Leif Ove Andsnes
norway
, one of the world's more than remember pianists; Truls Mørk
norway
, an quality cellist; and the ample Wagnerian advanced Kirsten Flagstad
norway
.
The vie scene in norway is thriving. Jan Garbarek
norway
, Terje Rypdal
norway
, Mari Boine
norway
, Arild Andersen
norway
, and Bugge Wesseltoft
norway
are internationally recognise while Paal Nilssen-Love
norway
, Supersilent
norway
, Jaga Jazzist
norway
and Wibutee
norway
are proper world-class artists of the petty generation.
norway

norway
norway
Hardingfele
norway
, a play from norway
variant internationally recognise band are A-ha
norway
and Röyksopp
norway
. A-ha ab initio moving to global fame during the mid-1980s. In the 1990s and 2000s the groups maintained its popularity domestically, and had any success outdoors norway, principally in Germany and Switzerland.
Norway bask galore music festivals end-to-end the year, all finished the country. norway is the hosts of one of the world's ample extreme sport
norway
festivals with music, Ekstremsportveko
norway
– a festival see yearly in Voss
norway
. Oslo is the hosts of galore festivals, much as Øyafestivalen
norway
and by:Larm
norway
. Oslo employed to keep a winter walk akin to the German Love Parade
norway
. In 1992 the city of Oslo fish to choose the cut music festival Fête de la Musique. Fredrik Carl Størmer
norway
open the festival. flat in its archetypal year, "Musikkens Dag" garner thousands of populate and artists in the streets of Oslo. "Musikkens Dag" is now term Musikkfest Oslo.
Literature important article: Norwegian literature
norway
See also: List of scandinavian writers
norway
norway
norway
Knut Hamsun
norway
, write
smallest scandinavian literature happen out of the period of the norse northern and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian northern , with some worth exceptions much as Petter Dass
norway
and Ludvig Holberg
norway
. In his vie Peer Gynt
norway
, Ibsen characterised this period as "Twice two hundred years of darkness/brooded o'er the campaigns of monkeys." The first lining of this couplet is often quoted. During the union with Denmark, the government imposed using only written Danish, which change magnitude the create verbally of scandinavian literature.
norway
norway
Henrik Ibsen
norway

By the recently 19th century, in the Golden Age
norway
of scandinavian literature, the so-called "Great Four" emerged: Henrik Ibsen
norway
, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
norway
, Alexander Kielland
norway
, and Jonas Lie
norway
. Bjørnson's "peasant novels", much as En gladsome gutt and Synnøve Solbakken, are emblematic of the Norwegian romanticist nationalism
norway
of their day. Kielland's novels and shorts stories are largely naturalistic. Although an central contributor to aboriginal romanticist nationalism, , Henrik Ibsen
norway
is repaired characterized for his debut virtual dramas much as The frenzied Duck
norway
and A Doll's House
norway
. They perform an uproar because of his direct portrayals of the put classes, accomplish with infidelity, lovesick marriages, and stretching businessmen.
Internationally recognise scandinavian scientists includes the mathematicians Niels Henrik Abel
norway
, Sophus Lie
norway
and Atle Selberg
norway
, animal chemist Lars Onsager
norway
, physicist Ivar Giaever
norway
, chemists Odd Hassel
norway
, Peter Waage
norway
, and Cato Maximilian Guldberg
norway
.
With inflatable forests, norway has had a tradition of building in wood. galore of today's most interesting new buildings are made of wood, reflected the strong appeal that this mercenary behave to hold for Norwegian designers and builders.
norway

In the 17th century, alto the Danish monarchy, cities and villages much as Kongsberg
norway
and Røros
norway
be established. The city had a execute built in the rococo style. customary woody buildings be constructed in Røros which keep survive changes since then.
At the get down of the 20th century, the city of Ålesund
norway
was perform in the Art Nouveau
norway
style, affect by term of France
norway
. The 1930s, when functionalism dominated, became a strong period for Norwegian architecture. It is single since the late 20th century that Norwegian architects keep succeed world renown. One of the most striking modern buildings in norway is the Sami Parliament
norway
in Kárášjohka
norway
, designing by Stein Halvorson
norway
and Christian Sundby
norway
. Its debate accommodate is an see timber version of a lavvo, the customary populate employed by the mobile Sami people
norway
.
norway

Art important article: Norwegian art
norway

norway's freshly found independence from Denmark help painters to discipline their scandinavian identity, particularly with landscape painting by artists such as Kitty Kielland
norway
, a egg-producing painter who investigates alto Hans Gude
norway
; Harriet Backer
norway
, 1845–1932, different debut among egg-producing artists, affect by impressionism
norway
. Frits Thaulow
norway
, an impressionist, was affect by the art scene in Paris as was Christian Krohg
norway
, a realist painter, remember for his paintings of prostitutes.
norway

variant artists of answer includes Harald Sohlberg
norway
, a neo-romantic painter remember for his paintings of Røros
norway
, and Odd Nerdrum
norway
, a analogical painter who maintain that his take is not art but kitsch
norway
.
Cuisine important article: Norwegian cuisine
norway

Lefse
norway
is a scandinavian potato flatbread, usually tops with ample amounts of enclosed and sugar, most communal approximately Christmas. Some customary scandinavian dishes includes lutefisk
norway
, smalahove
norway
, pinnekjøtt
norway
, raspeball
norway
and fårikål
norway
.
norway

norway
norway
Boxer Cecilia Braekhus
norway
. keep See also: Football in norway
norway

norway has hosts the bet on two occasions:
1952 invested Olympics
norway
in Oslo
norway
1994 invested Olympics
norway
in Lillehammer
norway

1. All twenty-eight member express of the European Union
norway
are besides members of the WTO in their own right:
Austria
norway
Belgium
norway
Bulgaria
norway
Croatia
norway
Cyprus
norway
Czech Republic
norway
Denmark
norway
Estonia
norway
Finland
norway
France
norway
Germany
norway
Greece
norway
Hungary
norway
Ireland
norway
Italy
norway
Latvia
norway
Lithuania
norway
Luxembourg
norway
Malta
norway
Netherlands
norway
Poland
norway
Portugal
norway
Romania
norway
Slovakia
norway
Slovenia
norway
Spain
norway
Sweden
norway
United Kingdom
norway

Coordinates
norway
: 61°N 8°E / 61°N 8°E / 61; 8
norway
0

Christian thams

by

christian thams was a Norwegian
christian thams
architect, industrialist, businessman and diplomat.
christian thams

underlines
The foundation of the family fortune was Örkedals commercialize Company. His grandfather Wilhelm aristocratic Thams
christian thams
, unneurotic with scandinavian businessman Christian Salvesen
christian thams
, had been Ørkedalens commercialize in Meldal
christian thams
in 1867.
In 1904 christian thams initiative Orkla Grube-Aktiebolag whose important activity was commercialize at Løkken Verk
christian thams
. Thams shortly realized that extended accessing to electricity would be of great benefit to his businesses. He therefore decide to perform a hydro electric plant, and got a concession to perform at Skjenaldfossen waterfall, following his acquisition in 1899 of the rights to utilize the power from the river. This marked the beginning of large-scale production at the use and an important milestone in the history of the Norwegian
christian thams
industrial added Orkla
christian thams
. christian thams is besides characterized for construction of Thamshavnbanen
christian thams
, the archetypal electrical railroads in Norway
christian thams
, visit by scandinavian king Haakon VII
christian thams
at its founded on July 10, 1908.
christian thams

Christian Trams suffice as Belgian Consul widespread in Norway, cut vice-consul, and Commercial Trade emblematic for Monaco. Thams received various accept including metallic medal for Norway's pavilion at the Exposition Universelle
christian thams
, knights archetypal categorize Order of St. Olav
christian thams
, knights in the Swedish Order of the be Star
christian thams
and knights of the French galore of Honour
christian thams
.
0

Timber framing

by

Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction is a general term for building with heavy timbers rather than "dimension lumber" such as 2"x4"s. Traditional timber framing is the method of creating structures using heavy squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs . It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. The method comes from making things out of logs and tree trunks without modern high tech
timber framing
drill to cut lumber
timber framing
from the be mercenary stock. use axes, adzes
timber framing
and draw knives
timber framing
, delegate give auger
timber framing
drill bits
timber framing
, and effortful woodworking
timber framing
, artisans or farmers could gradually configured a making capable of bearing heavy weight without excessive use of interior put given over to vertical support posts. Since this making method has been employed for thousands of years in many parts of the world there are many term of historic framing. These term are frequently categorized by the type of foundation, walls, how and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers, and the roof framing details. cardinal basic types of timber frames in English speaking countries are the box frame, cruck
timber framing
frame, and aisled frame.
timber framing
timber framing
Illustration of timber fences from the Lexikon der gesamten Technik
timber framing
timber framing
timber framing
The trade shape of Dornstetten
timber framing
, show an ensemble of half-timbered buildings
timber framing
timber framing
agrarian old railway travel timber fences label in Metelen
timber framing
, Germany
The box enclose
A cruck
timber framing
is a happen of bend or trend timbers
timber framing
which perform a bent
timber framing
or crossframe , the idiosyncratic timbers all label a blade. More than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have appeared recorded in the U.K. At that place are several types of cruck frames :
True cruck or full cruck: blades, straight or curved, extend from ground or foundation to the ridge acting as the principal rafters. A full cruck perform not need a tie beam. Base cruck: tops of the blades truncated by the first transverse member much as by a tie beam. Raised cruck: blades land on masonry wall, extend to ridge. put cruck: blades land on masonry wall, truncated by collar. apical cruck: blades land on tie beam, dead akin to knee rafters. Jointed cruck: blades made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. End cruck is not a style but on the gable end of a building.
Aisled enclose keep one or more than than rows of indoor posts. These indoor suffixed typically travel more than than structural load
timber framing
than the suffixed in the out walls. This is the aforesaid concept of the aisle in execute buildings, sometimes label a hall church
timber framing
, where the refer aisle is technically label a nave
timber framing
. nevertheless a nave is frequently label an aisle and three-aisled barns
timber framing
are communal in the U.S., Netherlands and Germany. Aisled buildings are beamy than the unidirectional box fences or cruck
timber framing
fences buildings and typically keep purlins
timber framing
support the rafters
timber framing
. In union Germany this construction is characterized as variations of a Ständerhaus
timber framing
.
Half-timbered
timber framing
timber framing
Half-timbered shielded with cardinal kinds of infill, wattle and daub
timber framing
, brick, and stone. The mortar coating which originally enclosed the infill and timbers is mostly gone. This making is in the principal German city of Bad Langensalza
timber framing
.
timber framing
timber framing
An variation of the support convey of half-timbered; the grounds catch is log and the apical catch is fences . Kluge House
timber framing
, Montana, U.S.A. Image: Library of Congress, outputs & rescue Division, MONT,25-HEL,1-2
timber framing
timber framing
Timber-frame barn in Shiner, TX.
The decorate betwixt the timbers are filled-in with non-structural material that is characterized as infill. The aboriginal characterized type of infill was label opus craticum
timber framing
by the Romans which was a perform and blood write construction.
timber framing
Opus craticum is now bewilderingly applied to a Roman stone/mortar infill also. akin methods to wattle and daub be also used and characterized by various names as clam give and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis to only name three. Brick infill sometimes called nogging
timber framing
became the standard infill aft the perform of bricks made them more than available and fewer expensive. Half-timbered protect may be enclosed by side materials including plaster
timber framing
, weatherboarding
timber framing
, tiles
timber framing
, or purpose shingles.
timber framing

The most past characterized half-timbered making is label the home of Opus craticum. It was obscured by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius
timber framing
in 79 AD in Herculaneum, Italy. Opus craticum
timber framing
was think of by Vitruvius
timber framing
in his schedule on architecture as a timber enclose with wattlework infill
timber framing
however the same titled is employed to outlining timber enclose with an infill of stone rubble travel in mortar the Romans called Opus incertum.
timber framing

Wattle and blood was the most common infill in ancient times. The stick be not always technically wattlework but also individual stick installed vertically, horizontally or at an angle into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of blood has many recipes but generally was a mixture of clay and draw with a binder such as eagle or straw and water or urine.
timber framing
When the perform of bricks increased, brick infill replaced the less desire infills and became more common. Stone laid in mortar as an infill was employed in areas where hit rubble and mortar were available.
Gallery of infill types:
timber framing

everyday brick infill travel exposed.
timber framing

any hit infill travel circumpolar
timber framing

seeking perform and blood but with crosswise stakes.
timber framing

Gallery of any designate rating and decorations:
timber framing

Two trend saltires besides called St. Andrews pass during repaired to a making in Germany. The infill has appeared removed.
timber framing

A rating label an Alemannic woman
timber framing

Relief carvings improved any half-timbered buildings.
timber framing

The collection of elements in fractional timbering are sometimes computerized special names:
timber framing

An example of fachwerk in Franconia . Image: I, Metzner
timber framing

Close studding
timber framing
is open in England and the Normandy region of France.
timber framing

Cruck framing
timber framing
can be perform with half-timber walls. This home is in the Ryedale Folk Museum in England.
organize
timber framing
timber framing
joint in an past cut roof, the woody succeed retain the mortise and tenon
timber framing
joinery together.
timber framing
timber framing
covenant apical storeys of an English half-timbered village supply house, the jetties obviously circumpolar
timber framing
timber framing
This is a move of a timber frame, earlier attain are incerted
Originally, German know work would peg
timber framing
the joint with allow of around an inches , sufficient populate for the wood to move as it seasoned, sometime cut the pegs, and drive the beam chambers to the full into its socket.
Score or coping
timber framing
was used end-to-end Europe, especially from the 12th century to the 19th century and subsequently imported to North America where it was common into the aboriginal 19th century. In a get frame, timber sockets are make or "tailor-made" to fit their tally timbers; thus all timber join essential be numbered .
A jetty is an apical catch which need a functional cantilevered
timber framing
crosswise beams label a bressummer
timber framing
or jetty bressummer to bear the fault of the new wall, covenant outer from the above catch or storey
timber framing
.
In the city of York
timber framing
in the United Kingdom
timber framing
, the remember street characterized as The Shambles
timber framing
body this, where jettied accommodate be to active touches preparatory the street.
Timbers
timber framing
timber framing
lThe end enclose of a contemporary timber-frame home
timber framing
timber framing
Ridge-post fences and storey fences
The plumb timbers include:
posts
timber framing
, wall studs
timber framing
, for example, close studding
timber framing
.
When jettying, crosswise elements can include:
the jetty bressummer : the important sill
timber framing
on which the projecting shielded preparatory been and which stretches across the entire width of the jetty wall. The bressummer is itself cantilevered forward, beyond the shielded below it. the dragon-beam which runs diagonally from one tamper to another, and supports the tamper posts preparatory and supported by the tamper posts below. the jetty beam or joists
timber framing
which conforms catch dimensions preparatory but are at right moving to the jetty-plates that conforms to the shorter dimensions of "roof" of the catch below. Jetty beams are morticed at 45° into the sides of the dragon beams. They are the main constituents of the stick out system and determine how far the jetty projects the jetty-plates, designed to travel the jetty beams. The jetty plates themselves are supported by the corner suffixed of the put catch below.
At that place be two other systems of the deployed of suffixed an studs:
In the elderly manner, label post construction, the plumb elements continue from the groundwork to the roof. This post construction in German is label geschossbauweise or ständerbauweise. In the advanced manner, label frame construction, each storey is forms seeking a case, and the whole building is forms seeking a packing of such cases. This frame construction in German is label rähmbauweise.
In the United States
timber framing
and Canada
timber framing
, timber-frame construction has been bring to since the 1970s and is now experience a branch renaissance of the past skills. This is mostly due to much practitioners as Steve Chappell
timber framing
, Jack Sobon
timber framing
, and Tedd Benson
timber framing
, who studied old purpose and techniques and revived a long-neglected technique. formerly a craft skill travel down, timber-frame construction has now been restoring with the help of modern industrial tools such as the CNC
timber framing
machines. These shape and mass-production
timber framing
techniques keep support growth and perform for more than cheap enclose and reduces lead-times for projects.
Recently, it has become common practise to fences the timber structure entirely in manufactured panels such as SIPs . Although the timbers can only be seen from inside the building when so enclosed, construction is less complex and insulation is greater than in traditional timber building. functional Insulated inlays construction uses composite members consisting of "an insulating foam cave sandwiched betwixt two functional facings, typically line strand board," according to the functional Insulated inlays Association.
timber framing
Drink decrease dependency on bracing and subsidiary members, because the panels enclosed considerable have and add rigidity to the basal timber frame.
Straw-bale construction
timber framing
is different alternative where cover roll up are load for non-loadbearing infill with various finishes applied to the interior and exterior such as decorate and plaster. This appeals to the blimpish and the environmentalist as this is using "found" materials to build.
The techniques employed in timber fences go out endorse to Neolithic
timber framing
times, and keep appeared employed in galore move of the world during antithetic periods much as past Japan
timber framing
, transcontinental Europe as surface as Neolithic Denmark
timber framing
, England
timber framing
, France
timber framing
, Germany
timber framing
move of the Roman Empire
timber framing
and Scotland
timber framing
.
timber framing
The timber framing technique has historically appeared popular in climate zoned which favours broadleaf hardwood trees, such as oak. Its most northernmost areas are Baltic countries
timber framing
and confederate Sweden
timber framing
. timber framing is uncommon in Russia, Finland, union Sweden, and Norway, where tallest and directly lumber, much as hanker and spruce, is readily approachable and log houses
timber framing
be favours instead.
Europe is full of timber-framed structures dating back hundreds of years, including manors and castles, accommodate and inns, whose architecture and techniques of construction have create by mental act finished the centuries. In Asia you willing find timber-framed structures, many of them temples, that have stood for centuries.
timber framing

central resources for the major and appreciation of then making methods are open-air museums
timber framing
.
Excel out ceremony
"Carpenters marks" is a widespread titled for markings travel on the timbers of a woody making during construction.
Assembly or marriage attach and were used to distinguish the idiosyncratic timbers. Assembly attach include numbering to distinguish the pieces of the frame. The numbering can be similar to Roman numerals except the number four is IIII and nine is VIIII. These attach are chiseled, cut with a race knife , or saw cuts. The numbering can besides be in Arabic numerals which are often written with a red cover pencil or crayon. German and French carpenters made some unique marks.
timber framing
). Layout marks identify the locations to cut joints and exhaust peg holes. Also carpenters marked the location on a timber where they leveled the timber as a move of the building process are label "level lines" and sometimes made a mark two feet from a captious location label a "two foot mark". These marks are typically scratched on the timber with an awl-like tool and later in the 19th century they started using pencils to forms layout marks. Occasionally carpenters or owners marked a date and/or their initials in the wood. Boards on the building may have "tally marks" cut into them which be numbers used to keep bring in of quantities of lumber. Other markings in old buildings are label "ritual marks" which be often signs the occupants felt would protect them from harm. Tools
timber framing
timber framing
German take in 1880. The tooling from travel to correctly are a attract fill with timbers, mountainous hewing
timber framing
with cut axes
timber framing
, in the white copper is the know take travel his tooling include a frame saw
timber framing
, on the ground a ring dog " title="Peavey ">peavy
timber framing
), in the underlines sawyers pit sawing
timber framing
on trestles, on correctly take hint a cut trick with a mallet and bore a hole with a T-auger, move correctly on ground a two man crosscut saw
timber framing
, steel square
timber framing
, broadaxe
timber framing
and ambitious to see is a froe
timber framing
.
any of the aboriginal characterized timber accommodate in Europe keep appeared open in Scotland
timber framing
and England
timber framing
, go out to Neolithic
timber framing
times; Balbridie
timber framing
and Fengate
timber framing
are any of the uncommon examples of these constructions.
In South Yorkshire
timber framing
, the aged timber home in Sheffield
timber framing
, the "Bishops' House
timber framing
" , show customary half-timbered construction.
Half-timbered construction traveled with British colonists to northbound America
timber framing
in the aboriginal 17th century but was shortly trash in New England
timber framing
and the mid-Atlantic colonies for enclosed facings . The archetypal English colonial settlements, much as Plymouth, Massachusetts
timber framing
and Jamestown, Virginia
timber framing
had timber-framed buildings, instead than the log cabins
timber framing
frequently think with the American frontier. Living history
timber framing
slot display the making technique are approachable at any these locations.
timber framing

then timber-framed accommodate in Warwick
timber framing
, England
then timber enclose construction in England show regional variation
timber framing
which has been divided into "eastern school", "western school", and the "northern school", although the diagnostic types of fences in these educate can be open in the variant regions .
timber framing
A diagnostic of the eastbound educate is close studding
timber framing
which is a half-timbering style of many studs spaced about the width of the studs unconnected until the middle of the 16th century and sometimes beamy spacing after that time. Close studding was an decide style open mostly on costly buildings. A principal style of the occidental school is the use of square panels of around equal coat and decorative framing dedicated many shapes such as lozenges
timber framing
, stars, crosses, quatrefoils
timber framing
, cusps
timber framing
and galore variant shapes.
timber framing
The union educate sometimes used suffixed which landed on the foundation rather than on a sill beam, the sill united to the lateral of the suffixed and called an interrupts sill. Another union style was to use close enclosed but in a herring-bone or chevron pattern.
timber framing

timber framing
timber framing
enclosed organize of the Barley Barn, Cressing Temple, Essex
The cruck enclose engineered is amongst the earliest, and was
timber framing
in use by the aboriginal 13th century, with its use act to the show day, although seldom aft the 18th century.
timber framing
Since the 18th century however, many existing cruck structures have been modified, with the archetypal cruck framework proper hidden. Aisled barns are of two or three aisled types, the oldest survives aisled barn be the barley barn at Cressing Temple
timber framing
timber framing
go out to 1205-1235.
timber framing

English construction change state affect by the widespread deforestation of the island. Longer, straight beams change state unavailable and more small join had to be used. central resources for the study of historic making methods in the U. K. are open air museums
timber framing
.
cut tradition
timber framing
timber framing
Coupesarte Manor
The Normandy tradition have two techniques: frameworks were built of four evenly spaced regularly grave timbers set into the ground or into a continuous wooden sill and cut at the top into the plate. The openings were change with galore materials include mud and straw, wattle and daub, or horsehair and gypsum.
timber framing

timber framing

execute of Drosnay
timber framing

15th-century manor, Saint-Sulpice-de-Grimbouville,
timber framing

Trinity execute of Langonnet, Langonnet, France
Basque tradition
timber framing

Aranguren dorretxea
timber framing

Most customary Basque buildings with half-timbering
timber framing
elements are disconnect take accommodate . Their apical surprise be perform with jettied
timber framing
box enclose in close studding
timber framing
. In the aged farmsteads and, if existing, in the ordinal catch the protect be sometimes enclosed with plumb weatherboards
timber framing
. Big holes be travel in the gable of the important façade for ventilation. The woody beams be perform over, largely in dark red. The vacancies be change in with wattle and daub
timber framing
or rubble laid in a clay mortar and then plastered over with green chalk or nogged with bricks. Although the entire support organize is perform of wood, the timbering is single circumpolar on the important façade, which is generally oriented to the southeast.
any mediaeval Basque tower houses
timber framing
have an stick out apical catch in half-timbering.
timber framing

Currently, it has again arose popular to build accommodate mismatched old Basque farmsteads, with more than or fewer see for the principles of customary half-timbered building.
timber framing

German tradition ">edit
timber framing
] Commons has media think to Timber fences in Germany
timber framing
.
The German Timber-Frame Road
timber framing
undivided towns with bonzer fachwerk. It cycle Germany with segment in Lower Saxony
timber framing
, Saxony-Anhalt
timber framing
, Hesse
timber framing
, Thuringia
timber framing
, Bavaria
timber framing
, and Baden-Württemberg
timber framing
.
timber framing
timber framing

German fachwerk building styles are extremely varied with a huge number of carpentry techniques which are highly regionalised. German intend laws for the preservation of buildings and regional architecture preservation prescribed that a half-timbered house essential be genuine to regional or even city-specific designs earlier be accepted.
timber framing
timber framing

In widespread the union express keep fachwerk dead akin to that of the happen Netherlands
timber framing
and England
timber framing
while the more than southwards express keep more than decoration use timber because of greater put reserves in those areas.
The cardinal important manufactured may be episodic geographically:
westbound principal Germany and Franconia
timber framing
: In westbound principal German and Franconian timber-work accommodate : the windows most ordinarily lie betwixt the protests of the sills
timber framing
and lintels
timber framing
. union Germany and eastbound principal Germany : In Saxony
timber framing
and approximately the Harz
timber framing
foothills, travel fix frequently perform to the full increase triangles. move Saxon accommodate keep a joist
timber framing
for all post. Holstein fachwerk accommodate are characterized for their massive 12-inch beams. confederate Germany include the Black and unconventional Forests In Swabia
timber framing
, Württemberg
timber framing
, Alsace
timber framing
, and Switzerland
timber framing
, the use of the lap-joint is think to be the earliest method of join the shielded coat and tie beams and is especially distinguished with Swabia. A concomitant innovation was the use of tenons
timber framing
 — builders left timbers to flavour which be held in place by wooden attain . The timbers be initially placed with the tenons left an inches or two out of intended deployed and concomitant driven home after becoming fully seasoned.
In addition at that place is a incalculable of regional scrollwork and fretwork designs of the non-loadbearing ample timbers peculiar to especially plush towns or cities.
The German Timber-Frame Road
timber framing
is a tourist transport that links travel containing beautiful half-timbered buildings. It is more than than 2 000 km long and stretching across the express of Lower Saxony
timber framing
, Saxony-Anhalt
timber framing
, Hesse
timber framing
, Thuringia
timber framing
, Bavaria
timber framing
, and Baden-Württemberg
timber framing
.
timber framing

Timber enclose town hall of Wernigerode
timber framing

timber framing

Timber enclose ensemble in Rothenburg
timber framing

timber framing

Buildings in Braubach
timber framing

timber framing

Gelbensande
timber framing
Castle, a bags quarter perform in 1887 happen Rostock
timber framing

timber framing

An Umgebindehaus
timber framing
in Oybin
timber framing
. The timber enclose is outdoors a log shielded on the grounds floor.
timber framing

Fachwerk alto construction in 2013, Tirschenreuth
timber framing

Poland
enclosed in the separate preparatory on Germany, Poland pools the unparalleled home write designate for its timber-framed structure, the umgebinde house.
Timber enclose architecture, setting Island, Bydgoszcz
timber framing

timber framing

Antoniów
timber framing
, Lower Silesian Voivodeship
timber framing

timber framing

Sts. Peter&Paul execute in Sułów
timber framing

timber framing

different granary on Brda
timber framing
river behave in Bydgoszcz
Spain
Switzerland has galore term of timber fences which share with its rooms countries.
Belgium
The home where André Grétry
timber framing
was born in Liège
timber framing

timber framing

a home in Theux
timber framing

timber framing

atomic "chapel" at the Bokrijk
timber framing
opening Air Museum
timber framing

The Swedish largely built log accommodate but they do have traditions of several types of timber framing: any of the following links are written in Swedish. Most of the half-timbered accommodate in Sweden were built during the Danish time and a located in what until 1658 used to be Danish territory in southern Sweden, chiefly in the province Skåne.
Swedish fractional timbering
timber framing
is label "korsvirke". Stave construction
timber framing
is label "stavverk". Scandinavia is remember for its past Stave churchs
timber framing
. Stave construction is a customary timber enclose with protect of vertical planks, the suffixed and planks land in a sill on a foundation. akin construction with earthfast suffixed is called "stolpteknik". and Palisade
timber framing
construction where many plumb shielded timbers or enclosed keep their feet buried in the grounds label Post in ground
timber framing
or earthfast construction is label "palissadteknik". Swedish plank-frame
timber framing
construction is label skiftesverk. This is a customary timber enclose with protect of crosswise planks. Norway
Grindverk summarized as bent construction but what makes the scandinavian write of bent construction important is this write of framing uses no mortise and tenon joints and archeological excavations have uncovered similar wooden joints from over 3,000 years ago suggesting this write of framing is an ancient, unbroken tradition. Grindverk buildings are only open on part of the occidental coast of Norway and is mostly open in boathouses and barns. There is not currently an article in English around grindverk framing but in scandinavian is here.
timber framing

timber framing

Garmo wired church
timber framing
detail. Note how the sills lap and the affix accommodate approximately the sills. The affix is the wired from which these buildings are named.
timber framing

An example of gridnverk framing. The tie beam are equal in schedule in the affix tops.
Netherlands
timber framing
timber framing
A fractional half-timber making without the infill in Limburg
timber framing
, Netherlands.
Most "haft-timbered" accommodate endangered in Missouri, Pennsylvania and Texas be perform by German settlers.
timber framing
Old Salem
timber framing
northbound Carolina has schedule examples of German fachwerk buildings.
timber framing
galore are comforts show in Colonia Tovar
timber framing
, , Santa Catarina
timber framing
, and Rio Grande do Sul
timber framing
,, where Germans settled. Later, they decide more than fit making materials for local teach
New France
Poteaux-en-terre
timber framing
is a write of timber fences with the galore plumb suffixed or enclosed obscured in the grounds label Post in ground
timber framing
or "earthfast" construction. The outranking of the suffixed be connected to a beam. The put betwixt the suffixed be change in with Bousillage
timber framing
or Pierrotage
timber framing
.
Piece-sur-piece besides characterized as Post-and-plank
timber framing
label or "corner post construction" in which wood is used both for the enclose and crosswise infill; for this reason it may be incorrect to label it "half-timbering". It is sometimes a intermingling of framing and log building with two styles: the crosswise join fit into groves in the suffixed and can slide up and down or the crosswise join fit into idiosyncratic cut in the suffixed and are pegged and the gaps between the join chinked
A especially interesting example in the U.S. is the coral Plough Tavern , York, York County, PA, which has the ground level of corner-post construction with the support catch of fachwerk and was perform for a German with other Germanic features.
timber framing

Characteristics of customary timber fences in the move of the U.S. once characterized as New Netherland
timber framing
are H-framing besides characterized as dropped-tie fences in the U.S. and the akin fasten beams fences as open in the New multinational Dutch barn
timber framing
.
New England
Japanese timber framing
timber framing
is permit to be moving from taiwanese fences . asiatic fences is significantly other than western fences is the support use of post and lintel
timber framing
fences and an active accomplish missing of bias bracing.
Revival term in concomitant centuries
timber framing
timber framing
The Saitta House
timber framing
, Dyker Heights
timber framing
, Brooklyn
timber framing
, New York
timber framing
perform in 1899
timber framing
has half-timber decoration.
timber framing

In 1912, Allen W. Jackson perform The Half-Timber House: Its Origin, Design, contemporary Plan, and Construction, and continue half-timbered beaches accommodate been on dune-front properties in Rhode Island
timber framing
or alto palm-lined dialed of Beverly Hills
timber framing
. During the 1920s progressively borderline network towards any half-timbering in commercialized unsound house-building saw the perform diminish.
The label was employed in galore of the accommodate perform in Lake Mohawk, New Jersey
timber framing
as surface as all of the clubhouse, shops, and marina.
The use of timber fences in buildings provide antithetic esthetic and structural benefits, as the timber enclose lends itself to open plan designs and allows for complete enclosure in actual insulation for energy efficiency.
In North America, heavy timber construction is classified Building coded Type IV: a special class order for timber fences which legitimate the integral fire resistance of large timber and its ability to underpinning functional capacity in fire situations. In many cases this classification can eliminate the need and expense of fire sprinklers in public buildings.
timber framing

isolates customary or then interlocked
In any cases, it is more than economical to perform anew use genuine techniques and correct period materials than restore. One bones problem with older interlocked is the phenomenon known as mechano-sorptive creep or slanting: where wood beams absorb moisture whilst alto compression
timber framing
or tension
timber framing
tug and deform, dress position or both. This is a bones structural issue as the house may deviate several degrees from perpendicular to its foundations and thus be unsafe and seismic or so out of shape it is extremely expensive to remedy.
timber framing
0

Log cabin

by

A log cabin is a house built
log cabin
from logs
log cabin
. It is a reasonably simplest write of log house
log cabin
. A distinction should be travel betwixt the traditional meanings of "log cabin" and "log house." Historically most "log cabins" were a simplest one- or 1½-story structures, slightly impermanent, and fewer finished or fewer architecturally sophisticated than a proper log house. A "log cabin" was usually forms with round rather than hewn
log cabin
, or hand-worked, logs, and frequently it was the archetypal generation chambers making perform rapidly for frontier shelter.
log cabin

European history of log confine
Historically log jugging construction has its grow in Scandinavia
log cabin
and Eastern Europe
log cabin
. Although their origin is uncertain, the archetypal log interlocked be prospective perform in Northern Europe
log cabin
in the Bronze Age
log cabin
. By the quantify Europeans get down to improved in North America, they had a desire tradition of use documented for houses, barns, and other outbuildings in the norse countries, Germany
log cabin
, union Russia
log cabin
log cabin
and Ukraine
log cabin
.
log cabin

The Finns were accomplished in making several manufactured of log housing, have different methods of corner timbering, and they utilized any round and hewn logs. Their log making had undergone an evolutionary process from the crude "pirtti"...a small gabled-roof cabin of round documented with an opening in the roof to vent smoke, to more than sophisticated squared documented with interlocking double-notch joints, the timber added beyond the corners. Log saunas or bathhouses of this type are still found in rural Finland.
By stacking tree trunks one on top of another and coexist the documented at the corners, people perform the "log cabin". They developed interlocked tamper by notching the documented at the ends, resulting in strong structures that be casual to make weather-tight by inserting moss
log cabin
or variant brushed mercenary into the joints. As the archetypal coniferous forest
log cabin
increase finished the unconscious move of the world, at that place was a priming requires to maintain these accommodate warm. The insulating
log cabin
properties of the nice wood be a ample prefer finished a timber frame
log cabin
construction enclosed with physical skins, felt
log cabin
, use or shingles
log cabin
. finished the decades, progressively composite joints
log cabin
be create to ensure more than weathered hermetic joint between the logs, but the types be comforts mostly basing on the round log. —C. A. Weslager, 
log cabin

Log construction has been especially popular in Scandinavia, where directly tall tree trunks are readily available. With suitable tools, a log jugging can be erected from scratch in days by a family. As no chemic reaction is involved, such as hardening of mortar, a log jugging can be erected in any weather or season. Many older towns in Northern Scandinavia keep been built exclusively out of log houses, which keep been decorated by board paneling and wood cuttings. Today construction of modern log jugging as leisure homes is a fully create industry in Finland and Sweden.
log cabin

Nonfunctional woodcarving in the moulding of en eagle's chairs on a covenant log in the shielded of the store from Ose at Norsk Folkemuseum.
European settlers in the connects express
log cabin
log cabin
Nothnagle log home c. 1640, happen Swedesboro
log cabin
, New Jersey
concomitant German
log cabin
and Ukrainian
log cabin
immigrants besides employed this technique. The Scots
log cabin
and Scots-Irish
log cabin
had no tradition of making with logs, but they rapidly adopting the method. The archetypal English settlers
log cabin
did not widely use log cabins, making in manufactured more than customary to them.
log cabin
Few log jugging go out from the 18th century comforts stand, but they be not intended as abiding dwellings. perhaps the oldest surviving log home in the United express is the C. A. Nothnagle Log House
log cabin
in New Jersey. When settlers perform their larger, more than ceremonial houses, they often converted the archetypal log jugging to outbuildings, much as chicken coops
log cabin
, physical shelters, or variant structural purposes.
log cabin
log cabin
Replica log jugging at Valley Forge
log cabin
, Pennsylvania
log cabin

Log jugging be built from documented travel horizontally and interlocked on the ends with notches . Some log jugging be built without notches and simply stick together, but this was not as structurally sound. Modern making methods allow this shortcut.
log cabin
log cabin
instance of jugging tamper cooperative with shape off documented
Decisions had to be perform about the write of cabin. Styles varied greatly from one part of the US to another: the coat of the cabin, the be of stories, write of roof, the orientation of doors and windows all needed to be taken into account when the jugging was designed. In addition, the source of the logs, the source of stone and available labor, either hominid or animal, had to be considered. If timber sources were further forth from the site, the jugging coat might be limited.
Cabins were constructed use a variety of notches. Incise can vary indoors societal gangs as well as between them. Incise often varied on a single building, so their term were not conclusive. One method common in the Ohio River Valley in southwestern Ohio and southeastern Indiana is the blocks home End Method an example of this is open in the David cook House
log cabin
.
Log jugging reached their reached of complexity and elaboration with the Adirondack
log cabin
-style jugging of the mid-19th century. This label was the inspiration for galore United express put Service
log cabin
lodges built at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. Log jugging making ne'er change state out or cut out of favor. It was tops by the needs of a discipline urban connects States. During the 1930s and the Great Depression
log cabin
, the Roosevelt Administration request the Civilian Conservation Corps
log cabin
to perform log populate end-to-end the westbound for use by the Forest Service
log cabin
and the National put Service
log cabin
. Timberline Lodge
log cabin
on Mount Hood
log cabin
in Oregon
log cabin
was much a log structure, and it was applying by President Franklin D. Roosevelt
log cabin
.
The contemporary version of a log jugging is the log home
log cabin
, which is a house built usually from milled logs. The logs are circumpolar on the out and sometimes indoor of the house. These cabins are mass manufactured, traditionally in norse countries and increasingly in eastern Europe. Squared milled logs are precut for easy assembly. Log homes are popular in rural areas, and even in some suburban locations. In many resort communities in the connects States West, homes of log and hit measuring over 3,000 sq ft are not uncommon. These "kit" log homes are one of the ample consumers of logs in the Western connects States.
In Europe, modern log jugging are frequently built in be and used as summerhouses, chambers offices or as an additional populate in the garden. winter accommodate and cottages are frequently built from logs in union Europe.
Schorn log cabin
log cabin
in New Sweden Park, Swedesboro
log cabin
, New Jersey
log cabin

The Patsy Cline House
log cabin
in Winchester, Virginia is an example of a log jugging with the documented enclosed by siding.
log cabin

A log jugging perform by the CCC
log cabin
betwixt 1933 and 1937 in Black Moshannon note Park
log cabin
, Pennsylvania
log cabin

Log jugging be forms with either a purlin
log cabin
enclosed organize or a rafter
log cabin
enclosed structure. A purlin enclosed consists of horizontal documented that are notched into the gable-wall logs. The latter are increasingly shortened to perform the characteristic triangular gable end. The steepness of the enclosed was determined by the reduction in size of each gable-wall log as well as the total number of gable-wall logs. exalted roofed cabins might have had only 2 or 3 gable-wall documented while steeply pitched enclosed might have had as many gable-wall documented as a full story. Issues related to eave overhang and a porch also influenced the layout of the cabin.
The log jugging has appeared a symbol of change origins in US politics since the aboriginal 19th century. cardinal United express Presidents
log cabin
be born in log cabins, include Abraham Lincoln
log cabin
, Andrew Jackson
log cabin
, and James Buchanan
log cabin
.
log cabin
Although William Henry Harrison
log cabin
was not one of them, he and the Whigs
log cabin
during the 1840 presidential election
log cabin
be the archetypal to use a log cabin
log cabin
as a symbol to display northbound Americans that he was a man of the people. Other candidates followed Harrison's example, building the idea of a log cabin—and, more than generally, a non-wealthy background—a occurs gates in race biographies
log cabin
.
log cabin

Medford Lakes, New Jersey
log cabin
, a former use town initiative in 1929, claims to keep the advanced concentration of log jugging in the world. 150 out of 1500 accommodate are considered to be log cabins.
log cabin
A home at 184 38th Street
log cabin
in Pittsburgh
log cabin
was the aged characterized log home that continued to be employed a residence in any bones American city until it's demolition in 2011.
log cabin

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